1771 ED Wieringerwerf,
E-mail: (nameatendofline)@xs4all.nl : bakensverzet
Incorporating innovative social, financial, economic, local administrative and productive structures, numerous renewable energy applications, with an important role for women in poverty alleviation in rural and poor urban environments.
"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them"
Gesell, Silvio The Natural Economic Order
Revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228
Cooking is the most energy-intensive activity in most developing countries. Nearly all the fuel used for the comes from bio-mass, usually wood. Population growth and migration of people from the countryside to densely populated slums on the fringes of large cities have serious consequences, including health dangers, air-pollution, de-forestation and poverty.
For example, wood often has to be brought great distances, sometimes hundreds of kilometres, by trucks using imported fuel. It then has to be distributed. This wood is expensive and the money to buy it leaves the local economy creating a downward poverty spiral. Fuel costs are often the biggest budget item of families in the developing countries.
Local production of highly efficient stoves under local LETS systems can eliminate or at least substantially reduce the need to import wood into the project area. Under the project proposals wood will not be needed at all. The benefits of just this single project item are dramatic, including:
- elimination of smoke hazards (the cause of more deaths in the world than all water-borne and infectious diseases together) in and around users’ homes.
- reduction of fire risks.
- reduction of risks of accidental burning and scolding, especially of young children.
halting the depletion of forests.
- helping to stop erosion.
- reducing the CO2 emissions.
- reducing smog formation in cities, towns and villages.
- releasing users from an unsustainable financial burden.
- using (some of) the financial saving to finance this whole development project.
- possibility of earning carbon emission reduction certificates for sale under the Kyoto Treaty.
The proposed highly efficient gypsum composite stoves will reduce the bio-mass needed for cooking by up to 60%. The stoves will run with any kind of fuel. Importantly, the reduced bio mass needed to fuel them can be 100% locally produced, creating jobs to grow it, to make mini-briquettes for cooking and to distribute the briquettes. The production of bio-mass for cooking must not affect the production of local fertiliser for agriculture.
Gypsum composite stoves have been preferred to solar cookers (though these can always be offered as an option) because the use of solar energy for cooking does not always coincide with users' eating habits. The stoves also allow people to retain their customary cooking methods and preferred pot and pan sizes, and are better adapted to preparing traditional staple foods. They incorporate heat level control, and will allow circulation of smoke so that the heat in the smoke is utilised.
The stoves will be locally sized to suit the two or three most commonly used pots and pans. Each family will buy as many stoves as it needs and can afford using the local LETS currencies.
a) Temperatures to 300 degrees C.
b) Heating and cooling cycles twice a day for at least five years.
c) Thermal resistance between warm inner fire wall and cooler external wall.
d) Ecological production in low cost labour intensive local production units with 100% local value added
e) Recycling of unwanted (old) items and parts to make new products.
The stoves burn any sort of fuel. The project provides for locally manufactured mini-briquettes to be used. The recipes for the mini-briquettes are expected to vary from one local LETS system to another depending on the materials actually available and local cooking customs. The burning speed will be controlled by adding water and/or vegetable oils and/or animal fats and/or dung and/or salt. Several kinds of mini-briquettes might be available to suit the different cooking jobs.
The mini-briquettes will be made from local waste materials like straw, leaves, sticks, paper, and dung. Suitable fast-growing crops will also be planted to produce enough local bio-mass to make the mini-briquettes needed in the project area. Using the LETS currency systems, the growers will either sell the crops directly to mini-briquette manufacturers or to tradesmen equipped to treat the bio-mass to make it suitable to use in briquettes.
BIO-MASS FOR PURE PLANT OILS
Mini-briquettes can also be made from press-cake waste from the local pressing of crops (such as hemp, soy-beans, oil palm, coconut palm, rapeseed, peanuts) for pure plant oil (PPO) for use with suitably adapted Diesel motors and generators.
Mini-briquette production for energy efficient stoves can therefore be economically combined with the local production of pure plant oil (PPO) for small-scale electricity generation and Diesel motor requirements.
For more information on recent development in appropriate small-scale bio-fuels technologies refer to the Fact-Fuels website.
Where their use is not in conflict with local eating habits, solar cookers will be built under the LETS systems for daytime cooking.
The solar cooker recipients will be made from gypsum composites.