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T.E.(Terry) Manning,

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1771 ED Wieringerwerf,

The Netherlands.

Tel: 0031-227-604128

Homepage: http://www.flowman.nl

E-mail: (nameatendofline)@xs4all.nl : bakensverzet



Incorporating innovative social, financial, economic, local administrative and productive structures, numerous renewable energy applications, with an important role for women in poverty alleviation in rural and poor urban environments.



"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them"


Gesell, Silvio The Natural Economic Order

Revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228



Edition 11: 27 September 2006


05.41 Local gypsum composite production facilities.

The project requires the supply of many water tanks, water containers, well-linings, san-plats, toilet seats, and support structures. Many of these are traditionally made from concrete, using materials that have to be paid for in formal currency and are usually not available locally. Concrete and cement are environmentally unfriendly and are difficult to dispose of after use. Concrete water tanks can cost up to Euro 4000 per tank. Concrete products are also subject to production faults and cannot always be repaired when damage damaged. They are heavy and difficult to transport.

A practical alternative to concrete, is to use a new-age gypsum composite product. Gypsum composite production units can be established wherever there are local deposits of cheap gypsum (CaSO4 + H2O) or anhydrite (CaSO4 + 1/2 H2O) which are very common, occurring naturally in most parts of the world. They can be used to make cheap, ecological, hygienic tanks, well-linings, toilets and other products. Gypsum composite technology is a state-of-the-art technology originating in the Netherlands. It can easily be transferred to project areas where cheap gypsum and anhydrite deposits are present . The gypsum composite production units can make a major contribution to the regional economy after the project has been completed as well as manufacturing the products needed for the project itself.  They are permanent industrial assets. They will be used to make various load-bearing structures and other building materials. Gypsum composites can even be used to weather-proof the mud walls of locally built houses and as a substitute for construction timber, reducing de-forestation.

Gypsum composites will also be used to make high efficiency stoves. The stoves can stand temperatures of up to 500 degrees C. They will recycle heat from smoke circulated around the pot. The stoves can be safely carried by hand with boiling water in the pot and fire in the stove. Although they will work with any sort of fuel, mini-briquettes made from bio-mass will be produced locally under the project.

Gypsum composites  may also be used to make solar cookers under the LETS systems in applications where daytime cooking is not in contrast with local customs.

The modest cost of production units for items made from gypsum composites will be funded within the project by interest-free green loans repayable, usually over a period of 3-5 years. The initial casting moulds for items made from gypsum can cost up to Euro 7000. These costs will restrict the initial range of products any single production unit can make. The top priority will be to service the needs of the project itself. Additional copies of the initial moulds are, however, very cheap to make.

The entire system for the production of items made from gypsum composites, the management of the deposits of raw materials, the construction of the factories, the production and installation on the items manufactured will be organised during a series of Moraisian workshops for which a separate allowance has been made in the budget.

While the workshops will work out the details, it is foreseeable that the production of items made from gypsum composites be highly labour intensive calling for minimum capital outlay. The products can be made manually without the need for any machinery, where preferred with a professional finish typical of western-manufactured products.

For more information refer to:

Information on gypsum composite technology.
Production of items from gypsum composites.


Usually three or four Moraisian organisational workshops will be held, one for each production unit.

Indicative participation (all workshops together)

The Moraisian trainers.
The project coordinator.
The general consultant.

Consultant gypsum composites.
At least one representative of the ONG.
Representative of the Ministry of Health.
Representative of the Rural Development ministry.
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects).
200 persons (men and women), indicated during meetings held at Tank Commission level, interested in participating in the activities of the factories. Where opportune, according to local political structures and traditions, up to 25% of the people could be indicated by the local chiefs.

Duration of each workshop: about six weeks.

The Workshops will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) Definition of the social form of the production units
- statutes
- rules
- professional and administrative structures
- financial aspects
- relationship with the local LETS systems

b) A structure for the supply of materials
- geological research for gypsum and/or anhydrite deposits
- locations of gypsum/anhydrite quarries, permits
- activities preparatory to exploitation
- logistics
- coordination of materials depots with the factories

c) Definition of the items to be made (tanks, toilets, stoves, solar cookers etc)
- coordination with the other production units (specialisation)
- contacts with families
- definition of requirements : articles and specifications
- definition of requirements : design, productive capacity
- definition of the necessary procedures
- preparation of moulds
- tests
- decision on priorities to be given to the various items

d) A structure for the factories
- land and necessary structures
- design of factories
- construction of factories
- purchase of necessary equipment

e) A production structure
- organisation of the production
- commercial organisation

f) A structure for the installation of the items produced
- Relationship factory-installers
- Preparation of the installers
- Installation
- Siting of boreholes/wells
- After sales backup and service

g) A structure for communications
- Vertical, at project level (project coordinator, factory manager, factory commissions, installers, end users)
- Horizontal, between production units
- With the local money LETS systems
- Commercial, radio, website

Forward: production of mini-briquettes.

Back: reforestation.

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List of key words.
List of abbreviations used.
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