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T.E.(Terry) Manning,

Schoener 50,

1771 ED Wieringerwerf,

The Netherlands.

Tel: 0031-227-604128

Homepage: http://www.flowman.nl

E-mail: (nameatendofline)@xs4all.nl : bakensverzet



Incorporating innovative social, financial, economic, local administrative and productive structures, numerous renewable energy applications, with an important role for women in poverty alleviation in rural and poor urban environments.



"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them"


Gesell, Silvio The Natural Economic Order

Revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228



Edition 14: 07 October, 2008


05.32 Sanitation facilities

Sanitation facilities will be installed in each of the (10.000) houses in the project area, and in the (35) schools and (4 clinics, where necessary) and in (number) of public places. 


For a diagram of the proposed waste disposal system see:


These are based on the separation of urine, faeces, and grey water.

In urban areas, urine, grey water and fertiliser can be used in vertical gardens made from gypsum composite blocks under the LETS systems.

Based on users' preferences and customs in accordance with the decisions reached during the organisation workshops to be held, the population may choose for collective systems and/or for units an individual family or a group of related families.

A typical unit will comprise a small toilet building containing three gypsum composite  tanks. One tank will be used for urine. The other two tanks will be used as aerobic composting toilets. Building support structures, san-plats for urinals and toilet seats will also be supplied by the local gypsum composite production units. The toilet structures will be built by local builders or cooperative groups and paid for using the LETS local currencies. Use of improved evaporation systems could eliminate one of the composting toilets. For health reasons we prefer the twin tank method.

Almost the whole sanitation project can be done under local exchange trading (LETS) systems, with nearly 100% local value added.

The toilets will be supplied with appropriate washing and cleaning means for personal hygiene.

A small quantity of locally available lime, ash, sawdust or similar would be added to the urine tank once or twice a day and to the faeces after use. The contents of the urine tank can be emptied at any time. A mixture containing one part urine and ten parts of water can be safely used for watering plants. This high quality product has been known to more than double the productivity of a household garden. An average family with 5 members can produce about 25m3 of this fertiliser per year.

Users not wishing to dispose of the urine themselves will hire local operators to do it for them under the local LETS currency systems. The development using LETS currencies of a collection system may be needed in poor urban areas where users have no gardens or are unable to dispose of their urine.

With the double composting dry toilet system, one properly aerated toilet tank is used until it is more or less full. It is then sealed and allowed to compost for 9-12 months while the second toilet tank is being used. The contents need to be moved from time to time. During that time, the compost in the sealed tank reduces to about one wheelbarrow full of soil per adult person per year. After 9-12 months composting, the soil can be safely and profitably used as soil conditioner.

With a single tank improved evaporation system, the faeces are dried by circulating relatively warm air in the system. It produces coagulated pellets that look like dry dogs' food. The residue is light and small. The tank can be emptied any time at 2-3 year intervals and the contents safely used as soil conditioner.

Users not able to dispose of the soil conditioner will hire local operators to do so under the local LETS currency systems.

Organic material other than urine and faeces will be composted in simple compost boxes built and supplied under the local LETS currency systems.

In rural project areas, grey household water from the kitchen and from household cleaning can be collected in an appropriate closed container and spread on the family vegetable plot once a day, avoiding the formation of open or stagnant pools and concentrations of water. It can also be used to dilute urine. Users not able to dispose of their grey water will hire local operators to do so under the local LETS currency systems.

In urban areas, grey water may need to be regularly collected, possibly together with urine, and taken to the countryside nearby where it can be recycled. This work would be done under the local LETS currency systems.

Non-organic solid waste products will be recycled in recycling centres operating under the local currency (LETS) systems, creating more local added value. In larger communities the centres may be specialised to some extent. Collection charges will depend on the kind of material being recycled. Environmentally harmful materials will be charged for at a higher rate than other materials. Special waste from clinics will be addressed separately.

Appropriate sanitation services where needed for the (35) schools and  (4) clinics in the project area will be included in the project.

Useful references for further information on dry sanitation are:
a)Winblad Uno et al, "Ecological Sanitation", SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency), Stockholm 1998.
b)Del Porto David & Steinfeld Carol, "The composting toilet system book", CEPP (Center for Ecological Pollution Prevention), Concord Massachusetts 1999. ISBN 0-9666783-0-3
c)Sawyer Ron (editor), "Closing the Loop - Ecological sanitation for food security", UNDP-SIDA, Mexico 2000 ISBN 91-586-8935-4

A useful reference on sanitation in schools is:
Sanitation for Primary Schools in Africa, Reed Bob and Shaw Rod, WEDC Water Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, 2008.
  However this project adopts neither the latrine technologies nor the construction technologies described in the reference.


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