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                                                                                    01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip. Int.Dev.)


Edition 01: 04 December, 2009



Tekstvak:         Quarter 3.










Study points : 05 points out of 18

Minimum study time : 125 hours out of 504


The study points are awarded upon passing the consolidated exam  for  Section C : The Model.



Seventh block:  Regional and national plans.


Study points : 01 point out of 18

Minimum study time: 24 hours out of  504


The study points are awarded upon passing the consolidated exam  for  Section C : The Model.



Seventh block:  Regional and national plans.


Section 1: Regional and national plans.

Minimum study time : 5 hours out of 504


02.00 hours : Regional plans.

02.00 hours : National plans.

01.00 hour   : Report.



Section 1: Regional and national plans.


Regional plans. (At least 2 hours).


Warning :  The national structures in this section are the very last to be set up, once more than one regional system is already in operation. Regional systems are set up once there are more than one local projects in operation in the region concerned  The volume of transactions between regions should, furthermore, not exceed  0,25% du 100%. 


For  regional level structures see part 06. Drawing showing regional plans in section 1 anthropological analysis of the third block solutions to the problems of the course.


The Model makes the drafting of fully detailed national or regional integrated development plans to meet nearly all of  the Millennium goals quick, easy, and cheap. How quickly the plans are prepared depends on the number of people (usually students or active members of grass-roots NGOs) and the number of individual projects (about 20 for each million inhabitants) involved. The maximum period for plan preparation is about three months, the minimum period one month. Plans involving populations over 10.000.000 cost about 2.5 eurocents ( €  0.025) per person. Smaller plans involving up to 1.000.000 inhabitants may cost up to 15 eurocents  ( €  0.15) per person, depending on population spread  and the size of the project areas.

National and regional plans involve the drafting of individual project documentations under the Model for each area with about 50.000 inhabitants in the country or region. Their preparation has practical advantages. Authors of the individual project documentations receive direct personal hands-on training on the application of the principles behind the Model, so that they qualify to act as coordinators for the projects they have drafted. Another advantage is that the financiers of the plans, the costs of which vary from about    100.000 to    300.000 depending on the populations, get to know the local grass-roots NGOs involved. Successful preparation of the national or regional plan should make it easier for the same financiers to contribute to the cost of pilot projects in the poorest areas covered by the plan.

In each of the project areas with 50.000 inhabitants an interest-free, inflation-free, cooperative environment is set up where individual initiative and tru competition are free to flourish. Together, the projects, after their execution provide occupations for  about 10% of the adult population in the region and powerfully influence the possibility of economic development of the remaining 90% of the inhabitants.

A sort of patchwork quilt of independent local economic areas is set up in each region. However, while independent, the local systems cooperate closely with one another.

The greater the number of local economies in a region, the greater the possibility that a given product or service will be available there. Since the local money in one system has the same value in all the others (10 local money units per hour of work), the local systems can trade with each other without needing to use formal money.


Refer to local money system  - introduction  and  a more detailed analysis of them in section 3 the financial structures part of block four  the structures to be created of the course, for detailed information on local money systems..

The aim of regional networks is to ensure a balance between export and import transactions amongst individual local money systems is maintained. This is because a large debit balance of one system towards another is an indicator of financial leakage from the debtor area to the creditor area. Local group coordinators must then intervene to correct the situation. They might, for example, elect to increase temporarily the range of goods and services exportable from the debtor region to the creditor region, or organise special markets for the sale of the debtor region’s products  in the creditor region. Key to he success of the system is that exports and imports between regions remain balanced, tending towards zero.


Ecological aspects – balance between regions.


Purpose of local economic development systems is always the reduction of the ecological footprint, whether it is related to transport costs, packaging, deterioration of fresh goods etc.


The supply of goods and services following the shortest possible line between supplier and consumer is a leading objective.


Regions with three levels of transactions.


The general vision is that of a three-tiered regional system.


The first level is at individual project level, with a market of +/- 50.000 persons, which is large enough to support a pronounced specialisation of products and services.  


The second level is a ring of adjacent individual systems where more specialised products and services can be traded.


The third, regional, regional is for even more specialised gods and services  It is made up of all of the local economic systems in a regional.




An hour of work under the local money systems is worth  (indicatively) 10 local money units. The local money structures will themselves decide if they wish to set a minimum (possibly 7-8 units an hour) and a  maximum (maybe 14-15 units an hour).  


Where there is specialisation of activities the supplier of a product or service may be in a monopolist position. This might occur at individual project level, or in an adjacent systems area, or even at regional level. The people who are duly elected to manage the local money systems will in that case support the formation of competing suppliers at local level.  They may choose to allow the importation of similar products and services from other systems. In any case consumers are always free to buy competing goods and services using the formal money system.


Limitation of exports.


Integrated development projects aim at promoting sustainable local structures, including those for the local production of food for local consumption. The export possibilities of productive and service initiatives receiving assistance from project structures will be subjected to limitations to ensure that the bulk of the goods and services is retained and consumed at local level. For this reason, multiple small-scale initiatives are preferred to large-scale ones.


Formal money transactions.


Except for products and services necessary for the basic structures of  individual projects, populations are always free to elect to pay for goods and services using the formal money of their country. Local money does not substitute formal money. The two system operate in parallel. This possibility puts a brake on monopolist activities at both regional and national levels. Where the price expressed in local money terms is considered too high, populations can refuse toi trade with their local economy suppliers through the purchase of competing goods and services in the formal money system.


1. Research.


Open zero-balance systems are proposed. Give a one-page explanation of this concept..


2. Research.


After having discussed the issue with at least one women’s group in your area, make a one-page list of at least 10 common and  necessary  products and services which could not be produced or carried  in your area within the framework of an integrated development project there. Indicate why.


3. Research.


Make a very simple sketch of your project area and of the areas adjacent to it each with +/-  50.000 inhabitants. Indicate the adjacent areas where the good and services from your previous list could be produced under the local money systems there. Make a list of the  products and services which are still «exposed », that is, without productive coverage.


4. Research.


Fill in on a simple map of the region (or province, or district)  where your project area is situated all of the areas with 50.000 inhabitants which would together form the «patchwork quilt » of the region. Colour your own zone and the ones  adjacent to it in.. Indicate on the map the other local systems in the region closest to your project area which could supply the goods and services from your list in exercise 3 which are  still without coverage. Make a list of the remaining  products and services which are still «exposed », that is, without productive coverage even at regional level. What are your conclusions ?


5. Opinion.    


The managers of the financial structures in your project area have asked you to make recommendations on how to guarantee balance between local production and the requirements of local consumers. Provide them a one-page opinion.. 


 Seventh block :  Section 1: Regional and national plans. 

 Seventh block :  Regional and national plans.

Main index  for the Diploma in Integrated  Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Technical aspects.

 Courses available.

Homepage Bakens Verzet


"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.


“Poverty is created scarcity”

Wahu Kaara, point 8 of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty, 58th annual NGO Conference, United Nations, New York 7th September 2005.



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