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Sustainable fully ecological self-financing poverty reduction in rural and poor urban environments, incorporating an innovative package of social, financial, and productive structures, with basic services necessary for a good quality of life for all, a leading role for women, and numerous renewable energy applications.


Version 02 : 14 May, 2012








Short project description.


The proposed project [name] applies to [name of project area]. This is a poor area in one of the poorest countries in the world. Its population is about 50.000 people. This is enough to provide opportunities for specialisation of production of goods and services and a market for them according to the anthropological bases of the Model for Integrated Development projects.


Structures to be created include:


Social structures, being about [200] Health Clubs, about [200] tank commissions, about 40 well commissions, a central commission with project management, and a three-tiered social security structure;


Financial structures, including a local money system, an interest-free and cost-free micro-credit structure for productivity development, and cooperative purchasing groups;


Service structures for a good basic quality of life for all, including the installation and maintenance of about [200] solar drinking water supply systems with 100% hand-pump back-up structures at [40] well points, ecological sanitation and waste recycling structures, structured social health and education services for all;


and Productive structures, including gypsum composite production units, structures for the production of biomass and mini-briquettes for cooking, full food security, afforestation and reforestation initiatives under the CDM mechanism, and a local radio station.


The structures are all set up, run, maintained, and where necessary paid for over time by the local people themselves. They meet and surpass all but one [vaccinations under goal 6] of the Millennium Goals. Together they form a cooperative, interest-free, local economic environment where individual initiative and competition are free to flourish.


Once the social and financial structures, and in particular the local money system, are in place, individuals, families, and cooperatives have the means and tools available to take whatever productive initiatives they wish. With the local money system in place there is no limit to the number and value of transactions for local goods and services for local consumption.


The project structures are created in a critical order of sequence using the mass capacitation workshop method devised by the Brazilian sociologist Clodomir Santos de Morais. The first structures to be created are the local health clubs. Apart from on-going hygiene education courses, these serve to provide women with a platform to organise themselves and vote en bloc for the election of the tank (or local development) commissions, each of which represents about 50 families (250 people). Most of the tank commission members should therefore be women.


The first level (or tank) commissions nominate the second level (or well) commissions, each of which represents about 1500 people. Since most of the members of the tank commissions should be women, they are likely to nominate women to the well commissions. Each well commission in turn nominates a member to the third level structure, which is the central committee or project parliament. Since most of the members of the well commissions should be women, they are likely to nominate a woman to the project parliament. Most of the  [40] members of the project parliament should therefore be women. Through this procedure, a prominent role for women is assured in all project structures at all levels.


All the basic structures created operate vertically over all (three) of the planned, anthropologically justified administrative levels.


The subsidiarity principle for the organisation and specialisation of tasks is applied. While each structure operates entirely autonomously at each level in its own way and its own speed, basic activities and duties are common to all like structures. This principle applies to other integrated development projects as well. This means that the planning and coordination of activities amongst integrated development projects at district, regional and national levels is simplified. It also means, for example, that while in one tank commission or well commission area hundreds if not thousands of local money transactions take place every day, in another a “wait and see” attitude may prevail and the local money system there may still not even be in use. The powerful benefits of strong, qualified leadership by some commissions should rapidly lead to emulation by others. In this way integrated development projects are self-educating.


The [name] project, once it is financed, is expected to require two years for execution.


Project execution is carried out by a single local project coordinator with help as required of an expert in integrated development, a hygiene education expert, an expert in capacitation workshops, an expert in gypsum composites technologies, a hydro-geological expert, and well-drilling services. The project coordinator is autonomous. He/she operates under the supervision of a cooperative which is legally responsible for the financing and execution of the [name] project. This cooperative includes the local town council and a small consortium of local and international NGOs.


The bulk of the project work is carried out by the local people themselves. The work is fully paid for under the local money system set up in an early phase of project execution.


As the various structures created become operative, they are handed over to the permanent Cooperative for the Management of the Project Structures. All adult residents in the project area are automatically members of this cooperative, the organs of which are the three-tiered elected social structures created. The Project Parliament (Central Committee) may choose to nominate a small team for the day to day management of the project structures.


The project documentation includes a logical framework, detailed time schedules for each project activity, graphs showing quarterly and annual expenditure, graphs for each set of project activities and project phases over time, and complete budget details with procurement plan.


The initial project investment needed is about [€ 5.000.000], or [€ 100] per person. Of this about [25%] is contributed by the local populations themselves. The work they do for the project under the local money system created early in the project is converted into Euros for budgetary purposes at the rate of  € 3 for each eight-hour working day.


The initial formal money capital investment needed for execution is therefore just [€ 3.750.000] or [€ 75] per inhabitant. This money is mainly used for the purchase of capital items which cannot be produced in the project area itself. These items include in particular solar pumps, photovoltaic panels and feed pipes for the [200] distributed drinking water structures.


While it is an advantage for the local populations that all or part of the formal money funds needed be made available to them by way of grant, initial funding can also take the form of an interest-free ten year loan.


An innovative menu of 13 possible CDM applications will be used as a first resort for the repayment, where required, of the loan capital. Full details of this menu are available at file 


CDM menu options include projects for CO2 savings through the reduced use of non-renewable biomass for cooking purposes through the introduction of improved stoves, the recovery of the [name of forest or natural parks] in the project area using traditional species, afforestation activities in settlements in the form of distributed planting of nut trees and fruit-trees, distributed bamboo plantations on grasslands for productive purposes and food security, Moringa (horseradish) plantations on marginal lands for food security, replacement of kerosene and other lighting by small-scale decentralised renewable energy sources (etc.). The total fund-earning potential of these CDM applications over time is about seven times the initial capital input for the project, with a break-even point at the end of the sixth year of project operations. All work under the CDM mechanism will be carried out under the local money system set up, in principle without the need for any formal money investment at all.


Full back-up as a second resort for the repayment en bloc, where necessary, of the initial capital investment after the first ten years of project activity is guaranteed by the project’s cooperative local development fund. Each family makes a small monthly contribution of [€ 0,60] per person (increasing over time to [€ 0,75] per person) into this fund. These payments cover all of the services and structures provided by the permanent Cooperative for the Management of the Project Structures.


Most of these monthly contributions are immediately redistributed to the populations in the form of interest-free loans for productivity purposes. These loans total at least € 2.500 per family over each ten year period. The loans are also cost-free in formal money terms, because they are managed under the local money system set up. The fund is planned in such a way that it will have [€ 3.750.000] in its account for the repayment, where necessary, of the initial investment loan at the close of the first ten years of project activity.


In case of use for loan repayment after ten years, the amount in the cooperative local development fund is temporarily reduced towards zero. Since families continue making their monthly contributions into the fund, the amount in the fund builds up again during the second period of ten years as it did during the first. At the close of the second cycle of ten years, the money in the fund can be used to pay for the renewal of capital items and/or extension of project services. The amount in the fund then returns towards zero again. It builds up again during the third period of ten years…. and so on in a permanently sustainable manner and continues to provide the local populations with on-going interest-free micro-credit resources for productivity development.


Project goals :


The social, financial, productive and service structures set up by the project generate a full mobilisation of the local population. As a result hundreds, if not thousands, of micro-projects can be put into execution contemporaneously in the project area. For instance, the construction of [200] local primary schools at tank commission level would involve the construction under the local money system of just one small school building and supporting structures by the people served by each tank commission. This could be carried out within a month or two. Where teachers are available, up to [200] schools can be built contemporaneously.


The goals of the project are:


General goals include:


a) To meet and surpass all of the Millennium Development Goals in the project area with the exception of vaccinations under goal 6. Vaccinations and other imported medicines, while valid, in principle cause financial leakage from the project area. That means less initial capital is left over for investment in the project structures and/or for on-going rotation of funds for productive local development there. Finance for vaccinations and medicines is usually readily available through other aid channels.


b) To create a cooperative, interest-free, inflation-free, local economic environment in the project area where individual initiative and genuine competition are free to flourish.


c) To achieve work for all in the project area within three years. This includes in principle productive work for the handicapped, and for the blind in particular.


d) To provide affordable health, sanitation and drinking water systems created, operated, maintained and financed by the local populations through project structures which operate entirely, except for the centralised purchase at project level of some spare parts, under the local money system set up.


e) To provide a three-tiered social security system for the needy.


f) To ensure the on-going preparation of women for participation in democratic structures and decision-making at local, district, and national levels through active (guaranteed) participation in the project structures.


Agriculture and food security goals include :


a) To safely recycle urine and faeces at household and/or local level to provide sufficient fertiliser for growing all basic foods needed.


b) To eliminate the need for importation of staple foods into the project area.


c) To institute [200] plant nurseries at first project level (tank commission area) and [40] plant nurseries at intermediate project level (well commission area) for the production of plants for CDM projects and for local cultivation.


d) To plant between 11 and 16 hectares in fruit trees and nut trees on settlements as defined under the CDM mechanism in each of  the [200] first level project (tank commission) areas to earn CER certificates under the Kyoto Treaty and to reinforce food security.


e) To plant between 7 and 16 hectares of bamboo in each of the [200] first level project (tank commission) areas to earn CER certificates under the CDM mechanism  under the Kyoto Treaty and to reinforce food security.


f) To plant an average of 12 hectares of Moringa (horseradish) trees in each of the [200] first level project (tank commission) areas to earn CER certificates under the CDM mechanism  under the Kyoto Treaty and to reinforce food security.


Ecology, conservation and energy goals include :


a) To create a sustainable energy-neutral local economic area with 50.000 inhabitants.


b) To avoid the need to import wood and other energy resources into the project area through the use of sustainable locally produced energy resources.


c) To introduce about 20.000 locally produced high efficiency cook stoves fuelled by mini-briquettes made from sustainably and locally produced biomass, and solar cookers for daytime applications.


d) To produce at least 100 kg a day of sustainable biomass in each of the [200] first level (tank commission) areas for the required local production of mini-briquettes for cooking purposes.


e) To create added value through local integrated recycling of organic and non-organic waste.


f) To reforest the [forest or natural reserve] in the project area, rehabilitate its flora and fauna and set up ecological corridors with neighbouring areas.


g) To create CO2 sinks through the application in the project area of a menu of six reforestation/afforestation methodologies under the CDM mechanism and generate CER certificates covering the repayment (where necessary) of the initial capital investment for the project.


h) To install at least [200] solar photovoltaic water pumping systems for distributed drinking water supply, and solar lighting equipment for [200] study rooms and [241] schools.


Education goals include :


a) To enable women, students and others who wish to study in the evening to do so.


b) To use the local money system to build up to [200] primary schools at first (tank commission level) , up to [40] secondary schools at second (well commission) level, and a trades school in [place]. Find teachers for the schools, build housing for them, and subsidise their salaries under the local money system as necessary.


c) To offer a full school programme up to University entry level for all children and youths in the project area and adult education, especially for women.


Finance goals include :


a) To set up a local money system.


b) To set up an interest-free, cost-free cooperative micro-credit system for productivity purposes operating under the local money system.


c) To avoid financial leakage from the project area by keeping all available financial resources (local LETS money and formal money) revolving continuously interest-free within the beneficiary community.


d) To stimulate on-going local cooperative industrial and agricultural development through the productive use of local currency (LETS) and interest-free micro-credit systems.


Health goals include :


a) To carry out a basic hygiene education programme by establishing [200] Community Health Clubs in the project area and promoting on-going hygiene education courses in all the schools there.


b) To contribute to the fight against water-related diseases through hygiene education, the supply of appropriate sanitation, clean drinking water systems, drainage of stagnant water, local production of mosquito nets and similar.


c) To eliminate smoke hazards in 10.000 homes through the introduction of high efficiency cookers and efficient grey water and waste disposal systems.


d) To use the local money system to provide [200] basic nursing facilities at each of the first-level (tank commission) areas, locate and/or train nurses for them, build housing for the nurses, and subsidise their salaries as required under the local money system.


e) [Over time, as doctors for the job can be found ] To use the local money system to provide up to [40] local medical centres including doctors’ accommodation facilities, and subsidise the doctors’ salaries as required under the local money system.


f) To provide a local basic hospital facility in [place] with up to 1 bed, and at least 0.5 bed, for each of the [200] tank commission areas. Simple hospital construction can be carried out under the local money system, once qualified design and specifications for buildings suitable for the project area are available. Support will be given under the local money system for the supply of non-specialist services, such as guards, gardeners, cleaning services, washing services, non-qualified kitchen services and food supply.


g) To provide a network of [40] bicycle ambulances operating under the local money system.


h) To set up a cooperative formal money health insurance fund operating under the local money system to cover the cost of  medicines.


Water and sanitation goals include :


a) To provide a permanent safe drinking water supply in the project area in all foreseeable circumstances, including periods of drought.


b) To make safe drinking water available within a radius of 150-200m from users' homes.


c) To install technically appropriate dry ecological sanitation facilities (composting toilets with urine separation) for the people in each of the 10.000 homes in the project area and in schools and public places.


d) To provide 10.000 rainwater harvesting systems, being one for each family in the project area.


Women’s rights goals include :


a) To reduce the work load on women.


b) To avoid at least 1 hour per day for the fetching of water, through the supply of [200] drinking water points close to homes.


c) To gain 4 hours a week through the supply of at least [40] washing facilities within easy reach of homes.


d) To save at least 4 hours per week by avoiding the need to fetch wood for cooking purposes, alternatively to save at least € 0,50 per day for reduced formal money cost of fuels for cooking.


e) To eliminate up to 2 hours of work per day through the provision of milling facilities for staple foods.


f) To provide improved health through the elimination of smoke in and around homes, stagnant water, and similar.


g) To provide full educational facilities to girls and adult-education facilities for women, including study rooms.


h) To ensure women’s participation in all project structures in preparation for their active participation in local, regional, and national elections and in political decision-making.


i) To ensure economic autonomy of women through the operation of the local money system and the interest-free micro-credit system for productivity purposes.


Innovative aspects of the project.


General notes :


01. The concept of the creation of enabling social, financial, productive and service structures as a foundation for integrated development in project areas is profoundly innovative. The development revolution lies in the organisation of the proposed project structures. Once the structures are in place, the local populations will have the instruments available to be able to take their preferred development initiatives.


02. The critical order of sequence for the creation of project structures is vital, starting with social structures, using the social structures to set up the financial structures, then using the financial structures to set up production units for locally produced items needed for the service structures, then finally the service structures themselves.


03. A powerful general productive mobilisation of the local populations is made possible through the use of the structures created by the project.


04. The local people themselves plan, execute, run, manage and pay for all structures. They are assisted during the initial project execution period by a (very) small team of experts led by a local project coordinator.


Agriculture and food security :


01. An innovative menu of CDM mechanisms is used both to achieve food security and to provide CO2 storage and funds for the repayment (where necessary) of the initial capital loan.


02. The production of fertilisers through the recycling of urine and faeces at household and/or local level is sufficient to grow all basic foods needed.


03. The recycling of household kitchen and garden waste at tank commission level provides food for chickens, goats, and where socially appropriate, pigs, thereby providing variety in diets.


04. The institution of plant nurseries under the local money system optimises local cultivation and the use of (local) seeds.


05. The utilisation of plantations with fruit and nut trees, bamboo, and Moringa and Jatropha trees provides both food security and raw materials for numerous local productive applications. Where necessary, it can also be used to repay finance advanced for the project.


Ecology, conservation and energy :


01. An innovative menu of CDM mechanisms covering different types of land use is used to fund the repayment (where necessary) of the initial capital loan, store CO2, improve water management and the ecological infrastructure of the project area.


02. A unique combination of methods and technologies promotes the formation of a coordinated energy-neutral ecologically sustainable local economy system.


03. The proposed combination of methods and technologies is in line with the principles of Mother Earth recently introduced by legislation in Bolivia.


04. Extended use is made of sustainable energy technologies, such as widespread application of photovoltaic energy installations.


05. In principle, all energy involved is sustainably produced and consumed in the project area itself.


Education :


01 It is possible to build any required number of schools and accommodation for teachers using local labour and materials under the local money systems. This means the schools are cooperatively built and owned by the local populations, while at the same time, local builders and suppliers are always fully paid for the work they do.


02. Teachers can be paid, or their state-paid salaries supplemented, by the local populations under the local money system.




01. An innovative local money system is blended with a cooperative interest-free, cost-free, micro-credit system operating under the local money system. This may be the single most innovative aspect of the project proposal.


02. The local money system is used to mobilise the local populations. All adult members of the population are automatically members of the system, but users may always choose whether to use the local money system or the formal money system for their transactions. The local money system supplements and therefore does not replace the formal money one.


03. The innovative interest-free and cost-free micro-credit system proposed is run by the people themselves and the funds used are theirs. Fierce social control should ensure repayment of all loans. Conservatively based on an average pay-back time of two years, the system generates at least € 2.500 of interest-free credits for productivity development for each family in each period of ten years.


Health :


01. Health proposals covered by the project are based on preventive social health action and not on curative medicine.


02. Subject to the availability of doctors over time, up to [40] local medical centres including appropriate accommodation for doctors can be built under the local money systems using local labour and materials. This means the centres are cooperatively built and owned by the local populations, while at the same time, builders and suppliers are always fully paid for their work.


03. Doctors can be paid, or their state-paid salaries supplemented, by the local populations under the local money system.


04 Up to [200] nursing points including accommodation for nurses will be built under the local money systems using local labour and materials. This means the nursing points are cooperatively built and owned by the local populations, while at the same time, builders and suppliers are always fully paid for their work.


05. Nurses can be paid, or their state-paid salaries supplemented, by the local populations under the local money system.


06. Medicines are cooperatively purchased in bulk by the project according to medical prescriptions. For the purpose a cooperative health insurance fund is set up. Local nurses ensure the medicines are administered according to prescription.


07. A basic level local hospital with up to [200] beds (at least 0,5 beds for each tank commission area) should be built in [place]. Many of the building costs and the costs of on-going non-professional services will be covered under the local money system. Purchase of medical equipment and imported medical supplies for the hospital is in principle not included in the project as they tend to cause financial leakage from the project area. Funds for equipment and supplies must be separately sourced under a conventional aid agreement.


Water and sanitation :


01. For drinking water supply, a hub and spoke concept is used whereby, assuming borehole capacities permit, several high pressure solar pumps are installed in series in one large diameter borehole feeding 5-8 distributed drinking water points, forcing water where necessary over a distance of several kilometres. This means that just [40] high capacity boreholes need to be drilled instead of [200] boreholes as would be the case in conventional projects, leading to important cost reductions for the drinking water supply system.


02. Use is made of gypsum composite technologies for the local manufacture of water tanks, toilet systems, high efficiency stoves, support structures for buildings, school furniture etc. These can in principle be 100% manufactured, installed and maintained under the local money system set up without the need for any formal money capital at all.


03. Ecological locally built dry composting toilet systems with separation of faeces and urine are used. Urine and faeces are safely recycled at tank commission level for productive purposes.


Women’s rights:


01. An elective system ensuring a leading role for women in all structures at all levels is applied.


02. Women are the major beneficiaries of the wide menu of time-saving and capacity building-structures set up during project execution.


03. The autonomy of women in the project area is improved through the interest-free, cost-free micro-credit loans for productivity purposes made available to them.


04. Women’s rights as defined in human rights treaties are fully respected.


Description of costs and benefits, a selected list.


Agriculture and food security.


01. Reduction of 80% in the costs of importation of food into the project area:


At the moment the project area lacks food security. Up to [80%] of the staple foods (millet, maize) needed have to be imported. This is the biggest single cause of financial leakage in the project area, and therefore of the extreme poverty of the people there. Average cost of food is about Euro 2,20 per family per day, of which 80% is Euro 1,75. Euro 1,75 x 10.000 families x 365 = Euro 6.387.500 a year. This alone amounts to 1.70 times the initial capital investment for the project, per year.


02. Fruit and nut trees:


Afforestation activities in settlements as defined under the CDM mechanism for the distributed planting of fruit and nut trees and similar generate CER certificates for up to € 172.000 over a period of 20 years, then €105.000 over a further period of 30 years. The value of the fruit and nuts produced for local consumption is not included in this calculation. Nuts are suitable for long-term storage. Fruit is suitable for drying and conserves. Some fruit production can be seasonally spread.


03. Bamboo plantations:


Small-scale agro-forestry activities – such as distributed bamboo plantations on grasslands and croplands produce CO2 storage to a value in CER certificates of up to € 210.000 over a period of 7 years. The plants also produce edible bamboo shoots, contributing to food security. Bamboo has innumerable productive applications leading to the creation of added value over an indefinite period. The value added of the bamboo shoots and bamboo products is excluded from the calculation. 


04. Moringa (horseradish) plantations:


Small-scale agro-forestry activities – distributed demonstration plantations for practical purposes for local use, including but not limited to Moringa (horseradish) plantations on marginal lands generate CER certificates for up to € 215.600 annually over a period of 3 years. Moringa (horseradish) trees produce high quality edible oils and edible “spinach” leaves over an indefinite period. The value added of these resources  is excluded from the calculation.


Ecology, conservation and energy.


01. «Automatic» reforestation for  6.5 kg, part of traditional use of 10 kg, of standing wood per family per day:


6.5 kg savings in wood x 10.000 families x 365 days = 23.725 tons per year @ average value of standing timber for pulp of Euro 7.5 per tonne = Euro 178.000 per year.


02. Fertiliser savings:


An average of 550 kg of urine and 51 kg of faeces per person per year, with a total production of 4.550 gr. of nitrogen and 548 gr. of phosphorus. Nutrients in the excreta (urine and faeces) of a family (or group) of  9 people is the equivalent of one 50 kg. bag of urea plus one 50 kg. bag of NPK 15:15:15 fertiliser.


On this basis, the population of 50.000 people in the project area (5500 groups of 9 persons) produce the equivalent of 5.500 bags of urea and 5.500 bags of NPK.


This is the equivalent of 275 tonnes of urea and 275 tonnes of NPK 15:15:15 fertiliser per project per year.


Current world prices are about € 387 per tonne for 46% urea, and € 402 per tonne for NPK 15/15/15 fertiliser. The fertiliser savings is therefore to the order of 275 * (€387 +  € 402) = € 217.000 per year.


Local production of fertilisers due to recycling of  urine and faeces is enough to cover the production of all of the food needed by the inhabitants, at the same time guaranteeing them a varied diet.


03. Reforestation under the Kyoto Protocol:


The project is a demonstration project for the recovery of [local forest lands and natural parks and reserves] using traditional species.  The expected value of CER certificates is up to € 210.000 per year over a period of 50 years.


04. Savings through local production of bio-fuels:


Demonstration afforestation and/or reforestation initiatives using Jatropha [on lands having low inherent potential to support living biomass] are expected to be carried out.  In that case bio-fuels for a value of up to  € 550.000 per year could be produced. This is a small-scale “non-commercial” application intended exclusively for local production and use under the local money system !


05. Reduction of non-renewable bio-mass under the Kyoto Protocol:


CO2 savings through the reduced use of non-renewable biomass for cooking purposes through the introduction of improved stoves are expected to generate up to € 356.356 in CER certificates per year over a period of 21 years.


06. Substitution of non-renewable by renewable biomass :


The use of renewable biomass instead of non-renewable biomass with improved cook stoves is planned. This should generate up to € 182.000 per year over a period of 21 years.


07. Improved lighting:


Replacement of kerosene lamps, incandescent light bulbs, and of the use of throw-away batteries by renewable energy sources (wind, solar and/or renewable bio-mass including but not limited to locally-grown plant oil, local gasification of biomass). The benefits generated under the Kyoto Treaty would be just € 10.774 per year over a period of 21 years. This is too low to justify application for CER certificates.




01. Reduction in the costs of purchase of wood for cooking (or alternatives):


Applicable to 40% of families (or 40% of 10.000 families or 4.000 families). In larger villages a 5 person family typically uses about +/- € 0,75 worth of wood or equivalent per day. A reduction of 65% through the use of improved stoves therefore amounts to Euro 0,50 per family per day. 4000 families x Euro 0,50 per day x 365 days = Euro 730.000 per year.


02. Cooperative Local Development Fund:


Contributions of € 0,60 per person over 4 years, € 0.75 per person during years 5-10, €0,90 per person during years 11-15 and € 1,10 per person during years 16-20 are made into the cooperative local development fund. The amounts are recycled systematically interest-free (and cost-free in formal money terms) for micro-credits. They total at least €2.600 per family during each period of 10 years. Euro 2.600 x 10.000 = Euro 26.000.000 over 10 years, or an average of Euro 2.600.000 a year. Average savings in formal money interest and costs 20%: estimated at Euro 520.000 a year.


03. Use of the local money system:


The local money system set up is one of the pillars of the project. No attempt is made here to monetise the vast benefits deriving from its widespread use.




01. Reduction of medical treatment costs for water-borne diseases :


Treatment of 50% of the population ( being 25.000 people part of the population of 50.000) at least once a year x average cost for medicines and doctor’s fees in the project area, which is Euro 20. Euro 20 x 25000 people = Euro 500.000 per year.


02. Productivity increase due to reduction in illness caused by water-borne diseases :


This involves 50% of the adult population ( being 50% of 30.000 people) x ten days per year x revenue Euro 3 a day. It produces a benefit of 15000 people x 10 days x € 3 per day = Euro 450.000 per year.


03. Reduction in the costs of treating people suffering from hunger, or due to inadequate hygiene, or caused by smoke in and around homes:


This involves 25% of the population of 50.000 at least once a year x average costs for medicines and doctor’s fees in the project area. This amount to 12.500 people x Euro 20 per treatment = Euro 250.000 per year.


04. Reduction of 50% in the cost of treatment for malaria:


This would affect at least 40% of the population at least once a year. Savings arise through drainage of surface waters, the use of mosquito nets, the hygiene education courses etc. Reduction of 50% of costs for 40% (20.000 people) of the population at least once a year. The average anti-malaria treatment in the project area costs Euro 10 per treatment. Total cost is 20.000 people x Euro 10 = Euro 200.000, of which 50% savings = Euro 100.000 per year.


05. Increase of productivity due to reduction in the number of cases of malaria:


Applied to just 10% (3.000 adults) of the adult population of 30.000. 3.000 adults x 10 days x revenue at Euro 3 per day = 3000 x 10 x 3 = Euro 90.000 per year.


06. Reduction in the cost of urgent transportation of sick family members:


People in the project area are usually taken to hospital in [place]. For this purpose a car is rented for [38] a time, which is paid for by a collection amongst all the family members of the sick person. Applied to just 10% ( 5.000 people) of the population of 50.000 at least 1 time a year, this amounts to Euro [38] per trip x 5.000 people = Euro [190.000].


Water and sanitation.


01. Water points at 100 m. from homes:


Average benefit 1 hour’s water fetching per day (being 10% of a 10 hours working day) x revenue Euro 3 per day, being Euro 0,30 per day x 10.000 women. This amounts to Euro 3.000 per day x 365 days, or Euro 1.095.000 per year.


02. Washing places:


Benefit 4 hours a week (being 40% of a 10 hour working day) x daily revenue Euro 3 = Euro 1,20 x 52 weeks x 10.000 women = Euro 624.000.


Women’s rights.


01. Elimination of the need to fetch firewood:


This applies to 60% of families (being 60% of 10.000 families or 6.000 women) x 4 hours per week (or 40% of a 10-hour  working day) x revenue Euro 3 per day, or Euro 1,20 per week. Euro 1,20 a week x 6.000 women = Euro 7200 per week x 52 weeks = Euro 374.400 a year.


02. Through the introduction of mills,


Time savings of up to 2 hours per day for eliminating the need to grind millet by hand. Average time saved: 1,5 hours per woman per day being 15% of the revenue of € 3 per 10-hour working day, or € 0,45 per woman per day. € 0,45 per day x 10.000 women x 365 days = € 1.642.500.


Replication potential.


The project documentation has been drafted under an innovative Model for self-financing, ecological, sustainable local integrated development projects.


Each project under the Model  is based on a population of about 50.000 people, and in each project area structures are organised in three anthropologically justified levels.


About 20 individual projects are therefore needed for each 1.000.000 inhabitants.


An introduction to regional planning with diagrams is available at


An introduction to national planning with diagrams is available at


By way of example, a sub-regional plan for the integrated development of West Africa under the auspices of the Organisation of West African States (ECOWAS, French UEMOA) excluding Nigeria and Ghana would involve about 2.500 projects. Execution of integrated development plans for Nigeria and Ghana together would involve another 2.500 projects.


Examples of regional and national plan proposals are available at website


Depending on accessibility and population densities, detailed district, regional, and national integrated development plans can be prepared for just a few Euro cents per inhabitant. Students and NGO members drafting project documentations automatically qualify to act as project coordinators for the individual projects they have drafted.


Each integrated development project sets up an autonomous, interest-free, inflation-free, cooperative local economy system. Subject to availability of finance, there is no limit to the number of projects which can be executed contemporaneously.


A perspective for the rapid achievement of the Millennium Goals is therefore created.

Environmental compatibility.


Integrated projects and therefore the [name] project are CO2 neutral. They are based on the concept that any energy used be locally produced and fully sustainable.


The menu of CDM methodologies to cover repayment of initial capital (should repayment be required) involve both CO2 savings by way of reduction of existing CO2 emissions and by way of storage of CO2 through reforestation and afforestation projects.


Where gypsum can be mined locally on a very small scale for local consumption, families living on top of the deposits may need to be moved. This situation is extremely unlikely.


Masks need to be worn in some phases of the production of articles made from gypsum composites because of fine gypsum dust in the air.


Gypsum is 100% inert. While gypsum-based products which are no longer needed will be returned to the production units for 100% recycling into new products, they do not cause any harm to persons or to the environment in any way even where they are abandoned in nature.


All organic and non-organic wastes are systematically collected under the local money system and recycled locally to create extra local value added. Materials which cannot be used locally (in particular chemicals and medicines) will be locally collected and sorted under the local money system and exported from the project area in bulk.




The entire documentation (with the exclusion of the CDM applications) for the [name] project is available at website at file [name of file].


A full documentation on the applicable menu of CDM methodologies is available at file


For articles related to Integrated Development concepts see file,htm


Students and members of NGOs qualify to act as project coordinators for the execution of the projects for which they have drafted the documentations.


Each integrated development project is autonomous. Subject always to availability of initial capital, hundreds, if not thousands, of integrated development projects can in principle be executed contemporaneously.


Detailed work on the mechanics of the present monetary system and monetary reform proposals supporting the financial and economic aspects of integrated development projects can be accessed at the homepage of in the section New Horizons for Economics : How our Financial System actually works and how to correct it.




Forward: list of drawings and graphs.

Back: General information.



Complete index of the Model.

Homepage of the Model.

Homepage Bakens Verzet



Poverty is created scarcity”

Wahu Kaara, point 8 of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty, 58th annual NGO Conference, United Nations, New York 7th September 2005.


"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.


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