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T.E.(Terry) Manning,

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Incorporating innovative social, financial, economic, local administrative and productive structures, numerous renewable energy applications, with an important role for women in poverty alleviation in rural and poor urban environments.



"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them"


Gesell, Silvio The Natural Economic Order

Revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228



Edition 1: 10 December, 2006


On the rights of indigenous peoples.

The following unofficial English translation of articles 119-126 of Venezuela's 1999 constitution on the rights of indigenous peoples is taken from:

Newsletter of the Caribbean Amerindian Centrelink
Vol. 3, Issue No. 6
July, 2002
ISSN 1684-0232
Caribbean Amerindian Centrelink, 2002

Special Issue:
The Rights of Venezuela's Aboriginal Peoples and the Constitution of 1999

A New Reality for Venezuela's Indigenous Peoples
By Domingo Sanchez P., Director, FUNDESIN
Based on a paper presented at the 3rd Virtual Congress for Archaeology and AnthropologyRed NAYA (NAYA Net)Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2002.
(Translated by Maximilian C. Forte)

(Begin quote)

Chapter VIII, On the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, in the aforesaid Constitution of 1999:

Article 119:

The State recognizes the existence of indigenous peoples and communities, their social, political and economic organization, their cultures, practices and customs, languages and religions, as well as their habitat and original rights to the lands they ancestrally and traditionally occupy, and which are necessary to develop and guarantee their way of life. It shall be the responsibility of the National Executive, with the participation of the native peoples, to demarcate and guarantee the right to collective ownership of their lands, which shall be inalienable, not subject to the law of limitations and nontransferable, in accordance with this Constitution and the law.

Article 120:

Exploitation by the State of the natural resources in indigenous habitats shall be carried out without harming the cultural, social and economic integrity of such habitats, and likewise subject to prior information and consultation with the indigenous communities concerned. Profits from such exploitation by the indigenous peoples are subject to the Constitution and the law.

Article 121:

Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and develop their ethnic and cultural entity, world view, values, spirituality and sacred places of worship. The State shall promote the appreciation and dissemination of the cultural manifestations of the indigenous peoples, who have the right to their own education, and an education system of an intercultural and bilingual nature, taking into account their special social and cultural characteristics, values and traditions.

Article 122:

Indigenous peoples have the right to a full health system that takes into consideration their practices and cultures. The State shall recognize their traditional medicine and supplementary forms of therapy, subject to principles of bioethics.

Article 123:

Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and promote their own economic practices based on reciprocity, solidarity and exchange; their traditional productive activities and their participation in the national economy, and to define their priorities. Indigenous peoples have the right to professional training services and to participate in the preparation, implementation and management of specific training programs and technical and financial assistance services to strengthen their economic activities within the framework of sustainable local development. The State shall guarantee to workers belonging to indigenous peoples the enjoyment of the rights granted under labour legislation.

Article 124:

Collective intellectual property rights in the knowledge, technologies and innovations of indigenous peoples are guaranteed and protected. Any activity relating to genetic resources and the knowledge associated with the same, shall pursue collective benefits. The registry of patents on this ancestral knowledge and these resources is prohibited.

Article 125:

Indigenous peoples have the right to participate in politics. The State shall guarantee indigenous representation in the National Assembly and the deliberating organs of federal and local entities with an indigenous population, in accordance with law.

Article 126:

Indigenous peoples, as cultures with ancestral roots, are part of the Nation, the State and the Venezuelan people, which is one, sovereign and indivisible. In accordance with this Constitution, they have the duty of safeguarding the integrity and sovereignty of the nation.

The term people in this Constitution shall in no way be interpreted with the implication it is imputed in international law.

(Gaceta Oficial de la Repzblica de Venezuela N0 36860. 30 de diciembre de 1999).

(End quote)

For the purposes of the Model for self-financing sustainable integrated development, attention is drawn in particular to the second sentence of article 123:

"Indigenous peoples have the right to professional training services and to participate in the preparation, implementation and management of specific training programs and technical and financial assistance services to strengthen their economic activities within the framework of sustainable local development."

List of attachments.

Complete index .

Model (Project) Homepage.

Typical list of graphs and drawings.
List of abbreviations used.
List of key words.
Documents for funding applications.

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