NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.


01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip. Int. Dev)


Edition 01: 29 November, 2009.

Edition 08 : 10 March, 2013.

Edition 10 : 24 November, 2014.



Quarter 2.






Study points : 06 points out of 18.

Minimum study time : 186 hours out of 504


The points are awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for  Section B :  Solutions to the Problems.



Fifth block : How the third block structures solve specific problems.


Study points : 02 points out of 18

Minimum study time : 54 hours out of 504


The points are awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for  Section B :  Solutions to the Problems.



Fifth block : How the third block structures solve specific problems.


Section 5: Sustainability. [5 hours]


02.00 Hours analysis of Model material.

02.00 Hours in-depth analysis.

01.00 Report.



Section 5: Sustainability. [5 hours]


In-depth analysis.  (At least 2 hours)


Read George Monbiot’s article The Great Imposters on the commodification of natural resources, published in the Guardian, London,  07 August, 2012.

“The costing and sale of nature represents another transfer of power to corporations and the very rich…..It diminishes us, it diminishes nature. By turning the natural world into a subsidiary of the corporate economy, it reasserts the biblical doctrine of dominion. It slices the biosphere into component commodities: ”

Environmental factors which “potentially also contribute to a collapse [of civilization include]: an accelerating extinction of animal and plant populations and species, which could lead to a loss of ecosystem services essential for human survival; land degradation and land-use change; a pole-to-pole spread of toxic compounds; ocean acidification and eutrophication (dead zones); worsening of some aspects of the epidemiological environment (factors that make human populations susceptible to infectious diseases); depletion of increasingly scarce resources, including especially groundwater, which is being overexploited in many key agricultural areas; and resource wars.” ( P.R. Ehrlich, H.M. Ehlich, Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided? Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biology, Vol. 280, 20122845, London, 08 January 2013. ) The article inludes a good list of 163 references.


The following analysis applies to national climate adaptation plans. Not all items necessarily apply to individual integrated development areas, but most do. Measures marked “Yes” are in principle included in integrated development projects. Those marked “No” are not.



Key vulnerabilities and adaptation solutions.


Annex III to the document Identification and implementation of medium- and long-term adaptation activities in least-developed countries.

(Technical Paper FCCC/TP/2011/7 for Item 6(b) of the Provisional Agenda for the Thirty-fifth Session, Durban 28 November—3 December 2011,

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Subsidiary Body for Implementation, Geneva, 16 November, 2011)



Adaptation development goal/sector.


Key vulnerabilities.

National adaptation programme of action interventions

(adaptation solutions).




Agriculture and food security: achieving and safeguarding food security.

Reduced crop yields.

Declining fish populations.

Shorter growing seasons.

Loss of agricultural land (erosion during floods, and desertification as a result of droughts).

Floods causing loss of soil fertility.

Soil salination due to saltwater intrusion.

Uncertainty about what and when to plant.

Droughts and unpredictable rainfall plus heat spells leading to increased evapo-transpiration.

Change of planting dates. [Yes]

Diversification of crop production by breeding resilient crops

(drought resilient for drought-prone areas, and salt resistant for coastal

zones). [Yes]

Fodder production. [Yes]

Reseeding of rangelands. [Yes]

Water harvesting. [Yes]

Construction and rehabilitation of reservoirs/dams. [No.]

Water-saving irrigation techniques. [Yes – strictly local, small scale].

Land-use planning. [Yes]

Soil conservation. [Yes]

Food preservation and processing through the improvement of small-

scale industries. [Yes – small-scale local activities only.]

Food/cereal banks. [Yes]




Water resources and water security.

Drying up of rivers and springs.

Increased water stress.

Rising sea levels compromising fresh water sources.

Scarcity of potable water.

Unsustainable use of groundwater resources.

Rainwater harvesting. [Yes]

Rehabilitation of wetlands. [Yes]

Integrated watershed management with land-use and coastal area

protection benefits. [Yes : with multiple projects in a watershed area.]

Rehabilitation of boreholes/Wells. [Yes]

Resilient designs of reservoirs, irrigation canals, ponds and dykes. [No, except for special situations.]

Efficient water use. [Yes]

Eco-sanitation. [Yes]




Physical safety: protection of life and property against climate extremes and disasters, including along low-lying and coastal areas.

Increased extreme and new events (glacial lake outburst floods, droughts and floods).

Traditional early warning systems unable to simulate the new and frequent events.

Landslides due to flooding.

Inundation along coasts.

Coastal erosion.

Degradation of marine ecosystems.

Artificial lowering of glacial lakes. [No.]

Construction of dykes, current breakers and shifting dune bars. [No]

Radar reflectors and life vests for fishermen. [Possible, not yet defined].

Hazard/risk maps and related response maps, and escape routes. [Possible, not yet considered]

Planning settlements in low-risk areas. [Possible, not yet foreseen]

Resettlement of communities at risk. [In principle possible, not yet foreseen]

Disaster management, preparedness and awareness. [Yes]

Rehabilitation of existing and/or installation of new observing

stations/equipment. [No, except for observation points in forests.]

Establishment of communication systems for early warning. [No.]




Protecting livelihoods and enhancing adaptive capacity.

Absolute dependence on natural resources and ecosystems.

Safety nets (e.g. social action funds). [Yes]

Promotion of non-conventional food resources. [Yes]

Homestead food production. [Yes]

Mainstreaming of gender-related considerations. [Yes]

Vocational training facilities and centres for communities. [Yes]




‘Climate proofing’ major components of national

economies and sustainable development (socio-economic growth engine).

Climate change exposes farmers to uncertain risks with heavy losses.

Farmers do not have access to credit.

Increase in frequency and magnitude of climate extremes.

Community training programmes on climate change. [Yes]

Including climate change in the national curriculum. [No.]

Developing and introducing energy saving techniques. [Yes]

Drought indices. [Yes]

Insurance design. [No.]

Contingency funding for surviving during disasters. [Yes : indirectly]




Supporting and enhancing human health and safety.

Alteration of spatial and temporal transmission of disease vectors,

including malaria, dengue fever, meningitis, cholera and diarrhoea.

Increased tropical storms increasing risks to life.

Distribution of treated mosquito nets. [Yes]

Production of bio-pesticides. [No.]

Rehabilitation and establishment of health-care centres. [Yes]

Securing potable water. [Yes]

Wastewater treatment systems. [Yes]




Protecting and enhancing ecosystem structure and

functions for the sustainable provision of ecosystem goods and services.



Degradation of grasslands.

Replacement of native species and colonization by non-indigenous species.

Sediment pollution during floods.

Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services due to erosion and watershed regulations.

Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services due to erosion and watershed regulations.

Coastal afforestation. [Yes]

Rehabilitation of mangroves and plantation management. [Yes]

( See Spalding, M. and others, Mangroves for coastal defence. Guidelines for coastal managers and policymakers, Wetlands International avec The Nature Conservancy, Wageningen, 2014.)

Participative protection of coastal sediment barriers. [Yes]

Optimization of freshwater and drainage management, including

construction of diversion furrows and terraces. [Yes]

Soil and vegetation management. [Yes]

Integrated watershed management. [Yes : with multiple projects in a watershed area.]

Reseeding of rangelands. [Yes]

Plantation of trees and grasses in gullies. [Yes]

Construction of gabions to stop erosion and rehabilitate wetlands. [Possible, but not currently foreseen.]

Rehabilitation of silted ponds and reconstitution of basin slopes. [Possible, but not currently foreseen.]





‘Climate proofing’ renewable energy sources and supplies.

Energy insecurity resulting from disruption of hydropower systems.

Diminishing of indigenous biomass resources.

Wildfire prevention and management. [Yes]

Energy efficiency. [Yes]

Micro-hydropower stations. [No]

Diversification of energy sources (solar, wind and biogas). [Yes]




Protecting and preserving cultural values and cultural


Cultural norms and heritage (housing, clothing, medicine and other traditions) are closely linked to the environment.

A change of environment puts pressure on and forces changes in the culture.

Protection and conservation of indigenous species. [Yes]

Preservation of cultural heritage sites and promotion of botanical

Gardens. [Yes]




Protecting and improving the design of critical infrastructure.

Accelerated beach erosion.

Destruction of infrastructure during extreme events (floods and storms).

Redesigning and rehabilitating infrastructure. [No, except local, small-scale infrastructure]

Planning settlements in low-risk areas. [No. Possible, where required]






One positive aspect of the table of vulnerabilities and solutions above is that complicated (patented) technologies are usually not needed. Where patents could eventually be relevant, their owners apparently do not consider the risk of their qualified copying for local production in very poor countries, and especially in Africa, very high.


“…there have been very few patents [for the protection of primary adaptation technology in Africa] in fields that would seem highly relevant for addressing some of the Africa’s most pressing environmental needs, such as solar cooking, efficient lighting for remote locations, and solar or wind-powered water pumping.” (Haščič, I. et al, Climate Mitigation and Adaptation in Africa : Evidence from Patent Data, OECD Environment Working Papers, no. 50, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), OECD Publishing, Paris, November 2012.)


On the possibilities of reducing and even eliminating the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere and therefore providing a simple solution to global warming , see Regenerative Organic Agriculture and Climate Change : A Down-to-Earth Solution to Global Warming, Rodale Institute, Kutztown, 2014.


The Permanent  Cooperative for the Management of Project Structures


“…inclusion and equity are indispensable requirements for sustainable development. Just as development cannot only be about economic growth, nor can sustainability be only about protecting the environment. Development must be people-centered and promote rights as articulated by the indigenous groups, coupled with equal opportunities, and proper choices. Green growth must also be inclusive growth, generating social progress and contributing to eradicating poverty and achieving greater equality, as well as sustaining our natural environment. Our common future could be grounded in equitable and sustainable human development, with the explicit goal of expanding people’s freedoms and choices without compromising those of the future generation.” ( D.S.Rogers (ed), Waiting to be Heard : Preliminary Results of  the 2012 Equity and Sustainability Field Hearings, Part 2, Initiative for Equality, Occasional Report # 1, Rapid City, June 2012, p. 146).


The permanent cooperatives for the on-going management of project structures were analysed in section 2 division of tasks of the third block solutions  to the problems.


The statutes of the Cooperatives for the on-going management of project structures contain innovative operating concepts. The duration of the Cooperatives is «unlimited». The management structures answer directly to the populations, who own both properties and services..


1. Opinion


Describe on one page the factors which could lead to the winding up of  a management cooperative.   


Review you work on the social structures. 


2. Opinion.


On one page, explain the difference between the tank commissions formed under Integrated Development projects on the one hand and women’s groups, savings groups, and other voluntarily or legally formed committees already in operation in the project area on the other. Which elements guarantee the permanent stability of  the tank commissions ?


Review your work on the  financial structures.


3. Opinion.


On one page discuss the hypothesis that  «the financial structures of integrated development projects are stable because everyone profits from them and no-one can lose as a result of their operation». 


Review your work on the productive structures.


4. Opinion.


On one page, explain the productive structures are by their nature in principle less stable than the social, financial, and service structures under the control of the Permanent Cooperative for the on-going Management of Project Structures. Can you see any risks of instability ? Which risks ? Why ?


Review your work on the service structures.


5. Opinion.


On one page describe the services one by one and identify (where applicable) their potential for instability.


 Fifth block :  Section 5: Sustainability. 

 Fifth block :  How fourth block structures solve specific problems.

Main index for the Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip.Int.Dev)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Technical aspects.

 Courses available.

Bakens Verzet Homepage.


"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.

“Poverty is created scarcity”

Wahu Kaara, point 8 of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty, 58th annual NGO Conference, United Nations, New York 7th September 2005.


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