NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.


01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip. Int. Dev)


Edition 03: 01 September, 2010

Edition 17 : 29 September, 2014.


Quarter 2.




Study points : 06 points out of 18.

Minimum study time : 186 hours out of 504


The points are awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for  Section B :  Solutions to the Problems.



Fifth block : How the third block structures solve specific problems.


Study points : 02 points out of 18

Minimum study time : 54 hours out of 504


The points are awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for  Section B :  Solutions to the Problems.



Fifth block : How the third block structures solve specific problems.


Section 5: Sustainability. [5 hours]


02.00 Hours analysis of Model material.


   02.00 Hours in-depth analysis.

01.00 Report.


Section 5: Sustainability. [5 hours]


Analysis of Model material. (At least 2 hours)


“Art. 71. Nature or Pachamama, where life is reproduced and exists, has the right to exist, persist,  maintain and regenerate its vital cycles, structure, functions and its processes in evolution. Every person, people, community or nationality, will be able to demand the recognitions of  rights for nature before the public organisms. The application and interpretation of these rights  will follow the related principles established in the Constitution.” (Art. 71 of the Constitution of Ecuador on the Rights of Nature.) 


Article 71 formalises the Sumak Kawsay (“buen vivir”) concept of the Ecuadorian Quechua people. The reason for granting rights to nature rests upon the understanding that the market economy “fragments and breaks humans’ relations with nature.”  Sumak kawsay es la expresión de una forma ancestral de ser y estar en el mundo. El “buen vivir” expresa, refiere y concuerda con aquellas demandas de “décroissance” de Latouche, de “convivialidad” de Iván Ilich, de “ecología profunda” de Arnold Naes. ” (P.Dávolos, El “Sumak Kawsay” (“Buen Vivir”) y las cesuras del desarollo, América Latine en Movimiento (ALAI). Quito, 06 May, 2008.)


“The reckless drive for unlimited growth on a finite planet is itself a legalized Ponzi scheme perpetrated on communities around the globe, future generations, and the Earth’s biosphere….The destructive impulse of the free market is codified and empowered by legal structures that treat nature as human property….Living within the carrying capacity of the planet requires that we adhere to the natural laws governing all life and human wellbeing.” (Biggs S., Rights of Nature : Planting Seeds of Real Change, Global Exchange, San Francisco, 2012.)


“It is not inevitable, nor is it wise, that natural objects should have no right to seek redress in their own behalf. It is no answer to say that streams and forests cannot have standing because streams and forests cannot speak. Corporations cannot speak either; nor can states, estates, infants, incompetents, municipalities or universities. ” (p. 17)


“The guardianship approach would secure an effective for the environment even where administrative action and public lands and waters were not involved.” (p. 25)


“The guardian would urge before the court injuries not presently cognizable – the death of eagles and inedible crabs, the suffering of sea-lions, the loss from the face of the earth of species of commercially valueless birds, the disappearance of a wilderness area……make the violation of rights in them to be a cost by declaring the “pirating” of them to be the invasion of a property interest. If we do so, the net social costs the polluter would have to pay would include not only the homocentric cost of his pollution (explained above) but also the costs to the environment per se.” (pp 28-29.)


Ecological aspects of the project.


“Perhaps the most powerful conviction that permeates the entire society is that sustainable lifestyles can be reached merely by technological solutions, such as improving the efficiency of processes and products. The myth propagates the idea that producing and selling green (eco-, organic, fair trade, etc.) products will lead to significant environmental improvements that are able to offset and surpass the impacts associated with our high and increasing consumption levels. The belief in green consumption as the solution perpetuates among policy makers also because the majority of experts advising on sustainability issues come from political science, technology or economic disciplines.


“Policy tools and approaches developed within this technocratic worldview are typically supply-oriented and include pollution prevention, cleaner technologies and eco-design strategies. In recent years, they have resulted in significant reductions of production-related emissions in Nordic countries. On the other hand, the significant reductions in emission levels and improvements in resource efficiency are outstripped by increasing levels of consumption on individual, national and international levels. ” (Mont, O. and others, Improving Nordic policymaking by dispelling myths on sustainable consumption, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, 2013. ISBN 978-92-893-2589-9, p. 25.)


“Despite the impressive results in process and product efficiency and the increasing share of eco-labelled products on the market, the aggregate levels of emissions from product consumption are increasing, the amount of products per household and per person is growing and the overall size and speed of

resource and waste flows in society are mounting. ” (As above, p. 26).


“Policy-making needs to go beyond increasing consumption of greener products and focus more on significant shifts in consumption patterns that result in lower levels of resource use and environmental impacts.” ( As above, p. 33).


On p. 33 (as above) the authors propose a “consumption hierarchy” or pyramid :


[Top of pyramid.]

1. Prevent discretional over-consumption by providing new ways for generating well-being.

2. Facilitate reflexive consumption.

3. Encourage a shift to consumption of low-impact experiences and services.

4. Advocate reduced consumption of unnecessary goods.

5. Facilitate postponing consumption.

6. Facilitate consumption of second-life substitutes.

7. Offer eco/ethical brands of products and services.

8. Support provision of alternative solutions with lower sustainability impacts

[Bottom of pyramid.]


“If nature were in charge of creating an enduring human economy, she would surely apply the same principles she applies in natural systems. Her goal would be a global system of bioregional living economies that secure a healthy, happy, productive life for every person on the planet in symbiotic balance with the non-human systems on which we humans depend for breathable air, drinkable water, fertile soils, timber, fish, grasslands, and climate stability. Each bioregional economy would meet its own needs for energy, water, nutrients, and mineral resources through sustained local capture, circular flow, utilization, and repurposing. Decision making would be local and the system would organize from the bottom up. Diversity and redundancy would support local adaptation and resilience.” ( D.Korten, What Would a Down-to-Earth Economy Look Like?, YES ! Magazine, Bainbridge Island, 21 January, 2013.)


The Green Economy Pocketbook : The case for action published by The Green Economy Coalition ( c/o IIED, London, June, 2012, pp. 54-58 lists nine principles for what it terms “a green, fair, and inclusive economy”. Integrated development fully respects these principles. It describes step by step how the nine principles can be applied, including the formation of enabling cooperative financial structures.


The nine principles are :


1. The sustainability principle.

2. The justice principle. (Equity)

3. The dignity principle. (Genuine prosperity and well-being for all.)

4. The healthy planet principle. (Restoration of biodiversity, investment in natural systems, rehabilitation of degraded natural systems.)

5. The inclusion principle. (Inclusive, participatory decision-making.)

6. The good governance and accountability principle.

7. The resilience principle. (Social and environmental resilience.)

8. The efficiency and sufficiency principle. (Sustainable production and consumption).

9. The generations principle. (Investment for the present and the future.)


 Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.  Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development : Our Common Future [the Brundtland Report],  United Nations, New York 1987, Chapter 2 Towards Sustainable Development, par. 1. 


“A sustainable community goal cannot involve making a community better by making another community worse off.” Sustainable Community Indicators : Trainers Workshop, Hart Environmental Data, North Andover, 1998 p. 146.


“…..over the next few decades, international society will need to focus on achieving global goals that address these dimensions:


(1) Eradicate poverty and meet the basic human needs of all people including safe food, safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, health care, and universal primary education;

(2) Reorient the world’s economic system towards a low-carbon approach, sustainable resource use, and sustainable use of ecosystem services; and

(3) Secure environmental integrity, particularly through dealing with climate change and biodiversity. ”


The IGES Proposal for RIO + 20, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Kamiyamaguchi, November 2011, Executive Summary, p. vii..


“Local actors are the key drivers of change at the local level, and the success of poverty-environment mainstreaming efforts will be determined to a significant extent by their effectiveness in empowering local organizations to build and spread local solutions to poverty and environment challenges”.  (Hazlewood P., Mock G., Enabling Local Success: A Primer on Mainstreaming Local Eco-based Solutions to Poverty Environment Challenges, UNDP-UNEP Poverty Environment Initiative (PEI), Nairobi, October 2011, p. 1)


“Ecosystem-based initiatives that originate and are controlled locally tend to confer the greatest benefit on the poor. Since they grow out of local demand, they are more likely to spur the interest and continuing commitment that such initiatives require to be successful.  In addition, they are led by local organizations drawn from community members, and are thus in tune with local values, knowledge and practices.” ”.  (Hazlewood P., Mock G., Enabling Local Success: A Primer on Mainstreaming Local Eco-based Solutions to Poverty Environment Challenges, UNDP-UNEP Poverty Environment Initiative (PEI), Nairobi, October 2011, p. 3.)


“Society is undermining the ecological foundation of its own food system.” (Alder, J. et al, Avoiding Future Famines : Strengthening the Ecological Foundation of Food Security through Sustainable Food Systems United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, June, 2012, p. 8). ISBN 978-92-807-3261-0.)



Integrated development projects are 100% ecological.

They are based on the use of renewable energies, and in particular on the use of solar photovoltaic cells to power  the distributed drinking water structures. The eco-sanitation structures planned compost waste materials on site. Urine and faeces never come into contact either with drinking water or with surface or underground waters.

Non-organic wastes are collected and recycled where possible under the local money systems set up for productive uses within the project area .

The use of  high efficiency stoves eliminates smoke and fine particles hazards inside and around users’ homes. The replacement of fire-wood and charcoal by locally made min-briquettes safeguards forests and minimises CO2 emissions. The project should in principle qualify for CER (carbon emission reduction) certificates under the Kyoto treaty, the sale of which can contribute to the financing of  project activities.

The local production of items made from gypsum composites is also entirely ecological. The working cycle is such that the very small quantity of water needed during one phase of the cycle is recycled in a second phase of the cycle without the loss of any used or dirty water into the environment. Gypsum composite products are themselves 100% ecological. They are always repairable. Should they no longer be needed, they can be returned to the production units for 100% recycling to make new products. Material used is never lost to the environment, but even if it were, would not harm persons or things.

The use of gypsum composite materials may well cause fine dust inside the production units and in areas immediately surrounding them, and the quarries. For this reason, the working of gypsum composites in restricted areas should always be accompanied by the use of protection for eyes and lungs to avoid irritation. The project involves manual mining and manual working of materials on a very small scale, to the order of a few hundred tons a year. Much of the work takes place in spaces that are not closed in. Gypsum itself and as it is used for integrated development purposes is not hazardous.

The quarrying of gypsum can in principle cause the need to re-locate a few families whose homes may be situated directly on top of the gypsum deposits. The amounts of gypsum required, are however, so small that the need to re-locate anyone is unlikely.

Exploitation rights relating to the gypsum deposits are held by the project on behalf of the inhabitants of the community where the gypsum deposits are situated. Used quarry areas will be turned into useful local social structures according to the preferences expressed by the inhabitants, who are also the owners of the land.


Waste recycling structures.


For details see waste recycling structures : organisation et waste recycling structures : technique in section 5 the service structures of the fourth block the structures to be created.


See also food sovereignty in section 4: food crisis of this fifth block.


Collection of urine, grey water, (composted) faeces, and non-organic waste is organised during the course of organisational workshops.


The operations will take place under the local money LETS systems. A separate interest-free credit fund is provided in the budget for the purchase of equipment which is not available locally and/or which has to be paid for in formal currency.


In principle, the equipment used should not require the consumption of imported energy (electricity, diesel, petrol etc) which causes an on-going financial leakage from the project area. Transport distances should be kept as short as possible.


Structures for the elimination of smoke hazards from and around homes.


For a complete description see structures for the elimination of smoke in and around homes in section 5 service structures of block 4  service structures: analysis of the course.


See also the article PV and biomass aspects of sustainable self-financing integrated development projects and their financing  prepared for the Conference on Renewable Energies for Rural Development, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 19-21 January 2002.

Aeration, and in particular the elimination of smoke in and around homes in developing countries is one of the most important aspects for a healthy life. It is  widely overlooked.

In poor countries, and in particular in Africa, the most widely used source of energy is biomass in the form of wood, charcoal, crop wastes, and animal dung. 2.4 billion people use this biomass for cooking purposes. If coal is included the figure becomes 3 billion. This causes at least 1.6 million deaths per year (ITDG rapport “Smoke – The Killer in the Kitchen”, 2003; see also WHO World Health Report 1992;) including nearly a million children. The level of air pollution in the homes of the poorest families in developing countries can be 100 times higher than the maximum acceptable levels for health purposes. An article in “The Lancet”, edition 6 December 2003, “Report highlights hazard of smoke from indoor fires” reports:

“... extensive and long term exposure to combustion products in confined environments is a major cause of disease .... this is a priority area for research and prevention measures”.

Not only individual homes but entire villages are subjected to the smoke hazard two or three times per day around the time when meals are being prepared.

Projects under the Model must therefore introduce locally-built high efficiency cooking stoves to reduce and if possible eliminate the smoke hazard from family homes and villages. The ecological advantages and CO2 savings initiatives relating to and the economic aspects of the introduction of high efficiency stoves in project areas are discussed in detail in section 07.07 Analysis of Costs and Benefits.


Construction of mini-briquettes.

Bio-mass for mini-briquettes.


Projects, at least in theory, can qualify for Carbon Emission Reduction Certificates under the Kyoto Treaty. Within the framework of self-financing integrated development projects there is a market for 20.000 – 30.000 high efficiency cookers in at least 10.000 families. Assuming a fuel saving of 6.5 kg/day of fuel in each family, savings amount to 65 tons of wood per day or 23725 tons per year. Converted into tons of CO2, that is 18705 tons of CO2 per year. Assuming a market value of  Euro 24 per ton of CO2, this amounts to a credit of nearly €450.000 per project per year to which other cost and time savings can be added. For full information on this please see Kyoto Treaty : Analysis of  possibilities for finance.


Use of renewable energies.


The Interactive Renewable Energy Toolkit (iRET), published in CD form by Practical Action, Rugby, 2011 provides a very basic introduction to the use of  Renewable Energies in Development Projects. The CD is available free of charge from The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development, Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby, CV23 9QZ, England. E-mail : Website :  


See also the following articles:


New horizons for  renewable energy technologies in poverty alleviation projects , published in "Refocus" October, 2001 pages 22-25.

PV and biomass aspects of sustainable self-financing integrated development projects and their financing, article prepared for the Conference on Renewable Energies for Rural Development, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 19-21 January 2002.

PV, a cornerstone of sustainable self-financing integrated development projects for poverty alleviation in developing countries, presented at the 17th European Photovoltaic Energy Conference, Munich, 22-26 October 2001.


Financial leakage from poor areas caused by the importation of energy, including energy produced in other areas of the project’s host country, is one of the main causes of poverty. This bitter reality means that to stop the financial leakage importation of energy into the project area must be stopped. This means that energy consumed in the project area must be produced there. Since the project area has no existing energy distribution network the production of energy for local use must necessarily be decentralised. Since the amount of energy which can be locally produced is limited, priorities for energy applications have to be rigorously defined. An attempt must be made to reach an ethical balance between the benefits of structures and their cost. The projects cover the cost of energy resources for public services. The costs of energy resources for local productivity increase are covered under the interest-free cooperative micro-credit structures created in each project area. For more detailed information on the financial structures of integrated development projects see financial structures. The cost of energy resources for individual comfort purposes are not covered directly by the projects, which however support the formation of voluntary cooperative purchasing groups.


Typical projects provide for the installation of about 200 solar pumping systems, with photovoltaic panels with an installed power of 60 KW ; the installation of PV systems in schools and clinics ; and 200 PV lighting systems for study purposes.


The projects also offer possibilities for small scale local generation of renewable energies for specific activities such as small milling installations and other similar public services. For more information refer to A green oil for the world. Locally grown fuels for generators. (By courtesy of Sun & Wind Energy Magazine); LED lights for lighting. Information from the Light Up the World Foundation; pure plant oil for small-scale electricity generation.


Warning !  This is about local production of sustainable energy resources for local use. Read the article Jatropha et Souveraineté Alimentaire by M.Oudet, SEDELAN, Koudougou, Burkina Faso, Article 381 dated 15 June 2010, for an analysis of the risks inherent in the local production of Jatropha. (This article is in French). More information is available from the files on the  Kyoto Treaty : Analysis of  possibilities for finance.     


Nature conservation.


The ley de derechos de la madre tierra (law on the rights of Mother Earth) was passed by the parliament of Bolivia under no. 071 on 21st December, 2010. In this simple law, Mother Earth is given seven basic rights, and a Ministry for Mother Earth is set up to make sure these rights are respected.  The rights are:


[Translation from the Spanish by Stichting Bakens Verzet]


1. To life. The right to maintenance and integrity of life systems and the natural processes supporting them as well as the capacity and conditions for their regeneration.

2. To diversity of life. The right to the conservation of differentiation and diversity of living things (seres) composing Mother Earth without artificial genetic alteration or modification of their structures in any form threatening their existence, functioning, and future potential.

3. To water . The right to conservation of the functioning of water cycles, and its existence in the quantity and quality necessary to support life systems and the protection of water against contamination for the reproduction of the life of Mother Earth and all her components.

4. To clean air. The right to the conservation of the quality and composition of the air for the support of life systems and its protection against contamination for the reproduction of the life of Mother Earth and all her components.

5. To balance. The rights to the maintenance or restoration of the interaction, interdependence, complementarity and functionality of the components of Mother Earth balanced for the continuation of her cycles and the reproduction of her vital processes.

6. To restoration. The right to appropriate and effective restoration of life systems directly or indirectly affected by human activities.

7. To life without contamination.  The right to protection of Mother Earth against contamination of any of her components such as by toxic and radioactive residues generated by human activities.


Integrated development projects guarantee respect for all of the rights of Mother Earth mentioned in law 071.


Natural parks and reserves


The possibilities opened up for the active conservation of parks and  reserves of inestimable ecological value for the benefits of the present and future generations. These assets are usually in jeopardy due to chronic lack of financing. 


Interesting possibilities exist for productive cooperation between the inhabitants of the project area , through the structures set up in the course of project execution, and the management of the reserve, to set up a sustainable development of this resource. 


The reserve management may become member of the local money system set up by the project. This way it can make use of local  labour and services without needing any formal money. The services can include maintenance, reforestation, guards, conservation of fauna and flora, and the construction of infrastructures. The park management may request the installation of photovoltaic watering points for animals in the reserve.


The costs expressed in local money debits to the charge of the Park Management can be offset through strictly sustainable management of resources including the sale of wood (timber), meat, commercial tourist licences etc.




Nurseries, especially for the cultivation of native trees, including fruit trees, will be formed as commercial activities under the local money system set up, with financing of necessary imported items  under the interest-free micro-credit structures. Fruit trees will be planted along paths between villages and in public places and placed under the management of needy families.  


There is no limit to the number of fruit and comestible oil trees which can be planted in project areas. Trees often need several years to sink their roots . Once this is done, the trees are relatively immune to drought and provide a second food resource in hard times. Looking after them in their early years is a productive investment. These activities can give work to the blind and handicapped.


Nurseries will also be used for other plantations foreseen under the Kyoto Treaty : Analysis of  possibilities for finance.     


Cooperative seed bank.


“Suicides increased after Bt cotton [ in the state of Maharashtra in India] was introduced — Monsanto’s royalty extraction, and the high costs of seed and chemicals have created a debt trap. According to Government of India data, nearly 75 per cent rural debt is due to purchase inputs. As Monsanto’s profits grow, farmers’ debt grows. It is in this systemic sense that Monsanto’s seeds are seeds of suicide.

“The ultimate seeds of suicide is Monsanto’s patented technology to create sterile seeds. (Called “Terminator technology” by the media, sterile seed technology is a type of Gene Use Restriction Technology, GRUT, in which seed produced by a crop will not grow — crops will not produce viable offspring seeds or will produce viable seeds with specific genes switched off.) The Convention on Biological Diversity has banned its use, otherwise Monsanto would be collecting even higher profits from seed.

“Monsanto’s talk of “technology” tries to hide its real objectives of ownership and control over seed where genetic engineering is just a means to control seed and the food system through patents and intellectual property rights.” (Vandana Shiva, Seeds of Suicide, The Asian Age, Delhi, 31 March, 2013.)


The project will set one or more seed banks up under the local money system. The seed bank(s) will serve :


1.  For the reintroduction and conservation of local and regional plant sorts threatened with extinction.

2.  The preparation and conservation of seeds for local farmers.

3.  The conservation and reintroduction of traditionally used medicinal plants.


The seed banks may decide to manufacture seed balls from clay for distribution for the purposes of  forest re-generation in the interests of inhabitants, flora, and fauna.


Water resources.


See  drinking water supply structures: organisation in section 5 service structures of the fourth block the structures to be created  of the course.


Except for the drinking water extracted from the wells/boreholes amounting to about 1250m3 per day for 50.000 people, or 25 litres per person per day, surface and underground water resources are not exploited. Extensive irrigation systems are not foreseen, nor are they considered necessary. Adequate food production comes from household recycling facilities. These are backed up by small-scale rainwater harvesting initiatives.


1. Research.


Draw three columns on one page. Make a list of at least 15 measures taken under integrated development projects  for the protection of the environment. Next to each one, make a list of the professional qualifications considered necessary to carry them out. Next to the qualifications make a note of your conclusions.


2. Research.


The Model does not provide for specific action for the removal of existing sources of serious pollution. In some circumstances project structures will be able to make a major contribution. On one page, explain how.


3. Opinion.


The Cooperatives for the on-going management of Project Structures will not have legal power to force polluting industries in their project areas to stop their polluting activities. You are member of the Central Committee for your project area. You express to the Central Committee your frustration concerning an oil multinational which has refused to stop creating pollution. You propose to the Central Committee the signature of a petition directed to the official authorities of your choice. Write your petition on two pages. Begin with a list of the people/authorities who are to receive the petition, then provide a series of justifications for your petition, indicating the reasons for it, then make a list of the pollution which has to be stopped and on the basis of which laws. Conclude with a clear statement of the claims made..


 Fifth block :  Section 5: Ecology and sustainability. 

 Fifth block :  How fourth block structures solve specific problems.

Main index for the Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip.Int.Dev.)

  List of key words.

List of references.

Course chart.

Index to diploma course.

 Courses available.

Bakens Verzet Homepage.


"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them.

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.

“Poverty is created scarcity.”

Wahu Kaara, point 8 of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty, 58th annual NGO Conference, United Nations, New York 7th September 2005.



Creative Commons License


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Licence.