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MODEL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


ATTACHMENT 1

CLODOMIR SANTOS DE MORAIS AND ORGANISATIONAL WORKSHOPS

Edition 04: 16 June, 2007


1.0 SOME READING MATERIAL

1. Extracts from "Entrepreneurial Capacitation with Large GrouPs : Response to the Unemployment Crisis caused by Technological Progress"

Keynote speech at the Manchester Conference of 23rd March 1998 "Learning from Brazil" published in Manchester Monographs 38, 1999.

ARTICLE BY DE MORAIS

2.Personal note dated 3rd April 2001 from Prof. Raff Carmen of the University of Manchester

WHAT IS NEEDED ON TOP OF (FREIRE'S) CRITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS (CONCIENTIZATION - CONSCIENTIZACAO IN PORTUGUESE - WHICH "MARCHES PEOPLE UP THE HILL, ONLY TO MARCH THEM DOWN AGAIN" OR GETS THEM EMBROILED IN POLITICAL PROTEST/GUERILLA WAR - RE: BERGER 'PYRAMIDS OF SACRIFICE')- IS ORGANIZATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS (FOLLOWED BY ENTREPRENEURIAL LITERACY). IN THE SAME WAY AS, ONCE YOU HAVE LEARNED TO RIDE A BIKE, YOU WILL NEVER FORGET IT, SO ENTREPRENEURIAL LITERACY IS LEARNED (AND NEVER FORGOTTEN) INSIDE A METHOD -- (ORIGINATING IN THE THIRD WORLD, NOT WITH THE 'MASTERS OF DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT) -- WHICH WE REFER TO AS THE 'ORGANIZATION WORKSHOP'(OW)(1) - /..../ IF, INDEED, A MODEL DOES NOT START ON THE BASIS OF 'MASS CAPACITATION' I HAVE GRAVE DOUBTS WHETHER IT EVER CAN HAVE ANY HOPE OF TAKING OFF./..../

ORGANIZATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS (AND ENTREPRENEURIAL LITERACY) CAN INDEED NOT BE ACHIEVED MERELY BY 'MAKING PEOPLE AWARE', NOR BY SIMULATION EXERCISES, NOR EVEN LESS BY DINT OF VERBAL ("HUMAN RESOURCES") 'TRAINING' OR 'CAPACITATION BUILDING' MODULES, ALL BASED ON AMERICAN/EUROPEAN 'SMALL GROUP' SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. WHAT WE ARE DEALING WITH IS LARGE GROUPS, MASSIVE GROUPS OF PEOPLE. WHAT IS REVOLUTIONARY IN DE MORAIS' (NOT FREIRE'S NB) 'CAPACITATION' (RE: CAPACITACAO IN PORTUGUESE) IS THAT IT IS NOT THE TRAINER, THE INTERVENOR OR THE COMMUNICATOR WHO TRANSFERS THE ORGANIZATION SKILL, BUT THAT IT IS "THE OBJECT THAT TEACHES" (OBJECTIVE ACTIVITY OR 'CAPACITATION')

'CAPACITATION', WHICH IS A CONCEPT AND A PRACTICE WHICH ORIGINATES IN THE SECOND WORLD (RE: VYGOTSKY, LEONT'EV, LURIA) AND WAS PUT IN PRACTICE IN THE THIRD WORLD(RE: CLODOMIR SANTOS DE MORAIS) IS SO GENERICALLY DIFFERENT FROM ALL OTHER FORMS OF 'TEACHING', 'TRAINING', 'INSTRUCTION', 'SIMULATION LEARNING' OR 'CAPACITYBUILDING' THAT THERE IS NOT EVEN A WORD FOR IT IN ENGLISH (NOR IN DUTCH, GERMAN, FRENCH, JAPANESE, FOR THAT MATTER - THERE IS IN RUSSIAN, THOUGH: DYAETEL'NOST - THERE IS A LOT TO BE LEARNED FROM THE SECOND WORLD, AS WELL AS FROM THE THIRD RE: CARMEN & LABRA "LEARNING FROM BRAZIL" 1999)

3. ERAZO BENJAMIN - "SACKED AGRICULTURAL WORKERS TAKE ON THE MULTINATIONALS IN HONDURAS"

(from chapter 6 of Carmen, Raff and Sobrado, Miguel (2000), A FUTURE FOR THE EXCLUDED, Zed Books London, ISBN 1 85649 703 8, pages 62-64

(The workshop)

17,400 campesinos in total attended the capacitation Workshops, representing 39% of all the members or heads of household of the new land settlements which existed in 1976 (44,700 families in total. This demonstrates that it is entirely feasible to apply the method on a massive scale. On the other hand, such a massive cover by the method was possible only because participation in the OW learning events does not require preparatory schooling or a minimum level of literacy (7) After all, to organize oneself for survival does not require much more than the need to do so, and having an idea on how to put to the best advantage scarce resources(8). An intense level of national as well as international (Latin America) interest and participation in the workshops was noted on the part of employees, students and public sector officials, involving, in all, more than 450 persons. But the principal emphasis of this form of formation of adults was on the capacitation of the capacitators in the method. This formation goes to the roots of the workshop and demands that one experiences it in practice; this, alone, will allow a proper, experiential knowledge of how it works. In this way 300 persons were trained on behalf of National Agrarian Institute (INA) of whom a quarter came to occupy positions of direct responsability in the capacitation of the campesinos. Eventually 500 persons in total were appointed.

(The OW and the Private Sector)

By 1976 there was a marked slowing down in the Agrarian Reform process. But, at the same time, there was also a decline in the rate of occupancy of new land; land settlement nevertheless remained main arm of INA strategy, until the beginning of the eighties, which meant that the methodology remained in use, albeit not on a massive scale as before. This also meant that the method was able amply to demonstrate what it was capable of. As from 1977 a start was made with transferring the method to the private sector. There it was used principally as a working model in the development and strengthening of enterprises, cooperatives and peasant groups. This happened principally in two ways: through the new practices the personnel trained on behalf of INA brought to other institutions, and by the method being adopted as an institutional practice. A leading institution in the application of the method was the Honduran Institute for Rural Development (IHDER), which first concentrated its technical training methods on the enterprises,groups and cooperatives of the Atlantic region, the export crop producing zone of Honduras. This lasted from 1978 to 1982.

(Strengthening of group managment)

Both public and private sector capacitation initiatives in Honduras were concentrated in the Atlantic region, where the communal settlements consisted of an average of 25 peasants per enterprise, with a person-to-land ratio of 6 hectares, concentrated in relatively compact zones (of 15 or more settlements each) with a high agricultural potential which allowed them to become bases for second-degree organizations, such as Choloma, Guanchias, San Manuel, Guyamas, Lean, Msica, Jutiapa, Isletas and Bajo Aguan.(9) These enterprises specialized in export of agro-industrial produce and came to represent a sizeable section of the total land under cultivation in the country. This provided the objective conditions for enriching the organizational expertise of simple agricultural hand labour in coping with production processes of far higher complexity than they were typically accustomed to in their former peasant environment. Another important dimension was the ownership in common of a number of indivisible resources held in common (common resource pool) which implied the need to organize along the type of democratic principles prevailing businesses held in common. This in turn gave rise to an important inversion in the way people learn management methods. The Workshop became wellspring and basis of the process; it also led to a more selective training of administrative cadres and of technicians competent in Rural Development promotion matters. The about turns in the way productive capital is structured that were realized in those zones represent the most salient features brought about in the course of the Agrarian Reform and possibly represent most important achievements, on a national level, in the 1970's.Of these three zones, three managed to develop themselves: Guanchias, Guyamas and Bajo Aguan. Of those three, Guyamas was without doubt the most successful and noted for its innovations in terms of capacitation for conditions of collective ownership. We will come back on this later.

(The 'Centre' Workshops)

As we have seen,'centre' workshops played an important role in Honduras. They were responsible for the formation of cadres for the implementation of collectively managed enterprises. Most of those taking part in the centre workshops were ordinary peasants, and they were joined by experts and functionaries of the national public sector, the international development organizations and reesentatives from other countries in Latin America. The results of those centre wrokshops were less well documented, mainly because doing so was a massive enterprise. But we can venture the following hypotheses concerning the graduates of the workshops:

-Where participating peasants came from an enterprise that enjoyed some form of field assistance, this enterprise was intended to become a support base for others, which, in most of the cases, was what actually happened.

-Where campesinos came from enterprises or settlements that did not benefit from any form of support, their principal objective was to improve the organizational management skills of their own enterprise. However, some factors did not seem to corresond with the hypothesis. In the case of technical personnel, they made use of the workshops in a variety of ways:

-Where technicians were already involved in capacitation work, the experience helped them to deepen their knowledge of the method in a practical manner so they were able to better reproduce it for the benfit of others later. At a later stage they would add to this a better knowledge about the role of the workshop director and the different phases through which the director had to accompany the group.

-In the case of experts not attached to national institutions or belonging to national institutions not involved in development projects, the main benefit for them consisted in gaining inside knowledge of the method and in finding ways and means of applying it. In Central America the method was thus applied in many instances, based on the Honduras experience, for example in a number of cooperative contexts or in land settlement initiatives.

2.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

The following list is reproduced from pages 218-222 of Carmen, Raff and Sobrado, Miguel (2000) A FUTURE FOR THE EXCLUDED Zed Books London, ISBN 1 85649 703 8 with the kind permission of the authors and copyright holders

Author/s

Title

Publisher

Carmen, Raff and Sobrado, Miguel (2000)

A FUTURE FOR THE EXCLUDED

Zed Books London, ISBN 1 85649 703 8

Carmen, Raff with Labra Ivan et al. (1999)

LEARNING FROM BRAZIL

University of Manchester UK, Manchester Monographs 38, ISBN 0 902252 29 1

Sobrado, Miguel et al (2000)

PARA REDUCIR EL DEEMPLEO Y LA POBREZA-PRONACAMPO

Presidencia de la Republica de Guatemala

Andersson, G. (1986)

ANOTHER BATTLE BEGUN. IMAGES OF COLLECTIVE COOPERATIVES IN ZIMBABWE

Education with Production, vol.5, no. 1, December

Andersson, G. (1987)

COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT - SELF-MANAGEMENT: COOPERATIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION

Workteam, no.3, Gaborone, Botswana

Andersson, G. et al (1989)

ORGANISATION WORKSHOPS IN BOTSWANA

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Andersson, G. (forthcoming)

UNBOUNDED ORGANISATION

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Antoine G. (1980)

ENMI KOPERASION (Cooperative Enemy)

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Barelli, W. (1998)

PROGRAMMA DE AUTOEMPREGO (PAE):MAIS QUE UM EMPREGO: O FUTURO (More than a Job : a Future)

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Barrantes, V. (1999)

LA COSTRUCCION DE UN SUENO : COOPSILENCIO 25 ANOS DESPUES (The Construction of a Dream: Coopsiliencio after 25 years)

Heredia, Costa Rica : Euna

Campos, M. (1997)

DOMADOR DE LA MISERIA - CLODOMIR SANTOS DE MORAIS LLEVA SU VOZ Y SOLUCIONES CONTRA LA POBREZA (Conqueror of poverty - Clodomir Santos de Morais raises his voice and offers his solutions to poverty)

Rumbo, no. 657, 11-18 August, Costa Rica

Carmen, R. (1995)

WORKSHOP FOR ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT VS "BRITISH" ENTERPRISE EDUCATION

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Carmen, R. (1996)

AUTONOMOUS DEVELOPMENT: HUMANIZING THE LANDSCAPE

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Carmen, R. (1998a)

PRODUCTION WORKS!

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Carmen, R. (1998b)

GLOBAL CONFERENCING ON

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Carmen, R. (forthcoming)

WHERE THERE IS NO WORKPLACE

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LEARNING FROM BRAZIL

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COLLECTIVISM LEADS TO SELF-SUFFICIENCY

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Cherrett, I. (1992a)

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Cherrett, I. (1992b)

ALGUNAS REFLEXIONES SOBRE LOS RESULTADOS E IMPLICACIONES DEL LABORATORIO EXPERIMENTAL (Some reflections on the results and implications of the OW)

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Cherrett, I. (1993)

THE CRISIS OF SUSTAINABILITY AND EWTO

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Cherrett, I. and M.Sobrado (1992)

EASTERN EUROPE: ENTREPRENEURIAL TRAINING IN CONDITIONS OF SOCIAL CRISIS

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COMUNITARIO (1993)

 

 

Special issue on Cooperativism, Sao Paulo, September

 

 

Correia, J.C.B. (1994)

COMUNICACAO E CAPACITACAO (Communication and Capacitation)

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Correia, J.C.B. (1998)

DE PAULO FREIRE A CLODOMIR SANTOS DE MORAIS : DE CONCIENCIA CRITICA A LA CONCIENCIA ORGANIZATIVA

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Erazo Midence, B. and C.A.Tovar (1975)

DICCIONARIO DE LA REFORMA AGRARIA (Small Dictionary of Agrarian Reform)

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Erazo Midence, B. and C.A.Tovar (1985)

LA DINAMICA SOCIAL DE LOS LABORATORIOS EXPERIMENTALES

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FAO (1992)

CONSOLIDACION DE EMPRESAS CAMPESINAS DE REFORMA AGRARIA Y METODOLOGIAS PARA LA ORGANIZACION DE COMUNIDADES RURALES

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FAO (Brazil)(1987)

APOSTILA DE PLANJAMENTO E PROJECTOS- CURSO DE FORMACAO DE AUXILIAR DE PROJECTOS E INVESTIMENTOS - APIs (Courses for APIs - Investment Project Assistants)

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APRENDENDO COM A PROPRIA HISTORIA

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Freire, P. (1996)

CARTA DE PAULO FREIRE A CLODOMIR MORAIS - LEMBRANDO OS ENSINAMENTOS DA PRISAO (Letter from Paulo Freire a Clodomir Morais - sowing the seeds learned in prison)

in A VOZ DA ESPOS, A.M.A.Freire,

Freire, P. (1997)

TRIBUTE TO CLODOMIR

video cassette, Univeristy of Rondonia, Brazil (event related in Chapter 4)

HIVOS (Humanistisch Institut voor Ontwikkelingssamenwerking) (1984)

THE EXPERIMENTAL WORKSHOPS IN ANGLOPHONE COUNTRIES OF THE CARIBBEAN

Tegucigalpa, Honduras

IATTERMUND

ARCHIVES

Brasilia

INAGRO (1982)

AUDIOVISUAL TOOLS FOR THE OW

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Juarez, B. (1977)

MEMORIA DEL PRIMER LABORATORIO EXPERIMENTAL DE LA SELVA LACANDONA (Record of the first experimental workshop in the Lacondona forest)

Mexico: COCODES

Hanley, J.C. (Fr.Guadelupe) (1985)

ASI ES LA IGLESIA

Managua, Nicaragua: CENIH

Labra, I. (1984)

LA DIVISION DEL TRABAJO COMO PREREQUISITO DE LA FORMACION PROFESIONAL (Division of labour as Prerequisite to Professional Training)

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Labra, I. (1998a)

GLENN FOREST TRAINING CENTRE: COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT

Harare, Zimbabwe : SADET, June

Labra, I. (1998b)

INTRODUCING SOUTHERN AFRICA DEVELOPMENT TRUST

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Labra, I. (1992a)

TALLERES DE EXPERIENCIAS CON LABORATORIOS DE ORGANIZACION Y TALLERES DE GESTION EMPRESERIAL (Experimental Workshops and Entrepreneurial Management Workshops)

FAO/INA Conference Proceedings, RLAC/92/24 DERU-44 Tela, Honduras

Labra, I. (1992b)

PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL: RESPONSABILIDAD Y NECESSIDAD (Social Psychology with Large Groups: Responsibility and Need) (English trans. forthcoming)

Santiago de Chile: LOM Editoriales

Labra, I. (1996)

COMMUNICATION LINK TRUST. IMPACT EVALUATION OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL WORKSHOP APPROACH -DRAFT

Harare : SADET

Labra, I. and I.Labra (1992a)

CONTRIBUCIONES DE LA PSICOLOGIA EDUCATIVA AL DESAROLLO DEL LBAORATORIO EXPERIMENTAL

FAO/INA Conference Proceedings, RLAC/92/35 DERU-44, Tela, Honduras

Labra, I. and I.Labra (1992b)

EL PASTORALISMO, UN TIPO DE COMPORTAMENTO IDEOLOGICO ENCONTRADO IN AFRICA (Pastoralism : an ideological behaviour found in Africa)

RLAC/92/35 DERU-44, Tela, Honduras

Labra, I. and I.Labra (1999)

INTRODUCTION TO THE SOCIAL SCALE CAPACITATION METHOD

in Carmen, R., I.Labra, I.Labra and M.Davis (1999) LEARNING FROM BRAZIL, Manchester : Manchester Monographs no.38

Lewis, J. (1998)

MASSIVE PHENOMENON - MASSIVE SOLUTIONS NEEDED

New Economics, London, Summer

Monteiro, S.T. (1992)

O METODO DE CAPACITACAO PARA A FORMACAO DE EMPRESAS ASSOCIATIVAS

Revista Perspectiva, Erechim, Brazil

Monteiro, S.T. (1993)

A CAPACITACAO PARA FORMACAO DE EMPRESAS ASSOCIATIVAS (Capacitation for the Formation of Membership Enterprises)

Sao Paulo, Brazil : IATTERMUND

Mora Alfarp, J.A. (1978)

AUTOGESTION Y CAPACITACAO CAMPESINA (Peasant Modes of Self-management and Capacitation)

San Jose, Costa Rica : IICA

Mora Alfarp, J.A. (1980)

APUNTES SOBRE LA EVALUACION Y SEGUIMIENTO DE LA CAPACITACION EN LA ORGANIZACION CAMPESINA (Notes on the Evaluation and Follow-up of Capacitation with Peasants)

San Jose, Costa Rica : ANACR

Moraes, A.A. da Costa (n.d.)

GERAR O PROPRIO EMPREGO E OPCAO DO FUTURO (Manage your own Enterprise as an Option for the Future)

Alternative, journal of the Vitoria PROGEI, vol 1, no.8, Brazil

de Morais, C.S. (1969)

ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES EN TORNO A LAS ORGANIZACIONES CAMPESINAS EN LATINOAMERICA (Some Reflections on the Peasant Organizations in Latin America)

Geneva : ILO

de Morais, C.S. (1970)

PEASANT LEAGUES IN BRAZIL

in R.Stavenhagen, AGRARIAN PROBLEMS AND PEASANT MOVEMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA, New York : Doubleday

de Morais, C.S. (1973)

DICTIONARIO DE REFORMA AGRARIA LATINO AMERICA (Dictionary of Agrarian Reform)>

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de Morais, C.S. (1975a)

LA MARCHA HACIA LA CIUDAD (The Flight to the City)

Tegucigalpa, Honduras

de Morais, C.S. (1975b)

THE HONDURAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL

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de Morais, C.S. (1976a)

MOVILIDAD DE LA MANO DE OBRA EN CENTRO AMERICA (Workforce Mobility in Central America)

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de Morais, C.S. (1976b)

CAPACIDAD DE LA TIERRA PARA RETENER EL HOMBRE EN EL CAMPO (The Capacity of the land to continue to support human habitation)

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de Morais, C.S. (1979)

LA CAPACITACION MASIVA PARA EL DESAROLLO RURAL (Large-scale capacitation for rural development)

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de Morais, C.S. (1986)

NOTES ON A THEORY OF ORGANIZATION (trans. I.Cherrett)

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de Morais, C.S. (1987a)

ELEMENTOS DA TEORIA DA ORGANIZACAO NO CAMPO (Elements of a Theory of Organization)

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de Morais, C.S. (1987b)

CONDICIONES OBJETIVAS Y FACTORES SUBJECTIVOS DE LA INCORPORACION DE LAS MASAS RURALES EN EL PROCESO DE DESAROLLO PROGRESISTA DE LA AGRICULTURA EN CENTROAMERICA (Objective conditions and subjective factors in the incorporation of the rural masses in the progressive development project in Central America)

doctoral thesis, W.Pieck University, Rostock, Germany

de Morais, C.S. (1989)

A CAPACITACAO MASSIVA : UMA PROPOSTA PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO RURAL (Mass Capacitation: A Proposal for Rural development)

Porto Velho, Brazil : EMATER

de Morais, C.S. (1992)

THE IMPERATIVE FOR SOCIAL ENGINEERING IN THE AGRARIAN DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES

seminar, Humboldt University, Berlin and Capingo University, Mexico

de Morais, C.S. (1994)

A QUE E A ORGANIZACAO (What is an organization?) (The Theory of Organization explained in cartoons)

Alagaos Sate, Brazil : Trabalhadores sem Terra

de Morais, C.S. (1995)

CUAL E O MERITO DO METODO PAULO FREIRE (What is the Merit of Paulo Friere's Method?)

Rondonia, Brazil

de Morais, C.S. (1997a)

HISTORIA DAS LIGAS CAMONESAS DO BRASIL (History of the Peasant Leagues in Brazil)

Brasilia : IATTERMUND

de Morais, C.S. (1997b)

EL REENCONTRADO E LO PERDIDO DE LAS REFORMAS AGRARIAS (Agrarian Reforms Lost and Found)

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de Morais, C.S. (1997c)

LOS MERCADOS LABORALES EFICIENTES : UN DESAFIO PARA AMERICA LATINA (Efficient labour markets: a challenge for Latin America)

keynote address at the K.Adenauer Foundation International Seminar, San Jose, Costa Rica 30 July

de Morais, C.S. (1997d)

TEORIA DE LA ORGANIZACION AUTOGESTIONARIA (Theory of the Self-managing Organization)

Brasilia : IATTERMUND

de Morais, C.S. (1997e)

UMA NOVA VISAO DA EXTENSAO RURAL PELO GERACAO DE EMPREGO E RENDA ( A New Vision for Rural Extentsin of Job and Income Generation)

Porto Velho, Brazil : EMATER

de Morais, C.S. et al. (1976)

PROCCARA 46 Months

Tegucigalpa, Honduras: INA

Morales Marin, R. et al. (1986)

EL LABORATORIO DE ORGANIZACION, UNA METODOLOGIA PARA LA CAPACITACION EN ORGANIZACION (The Organization Workshop, a Methodology for Capacitation and Organization)

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FROM PROJECTS TOWARDS PROCESS : A CASE STUDY OF A CONCERN-INITIATED PROGRAMME IN MOZAMBIQUE

MEd thesis, CAHE, Faculty of Education, Manchester University

Pinheiro Machado, J.A. and C.S. de Morais (1996)

AVALIACAO DOS LABORATORIOS ORGANIZACIAIS DO ESTADO DA PARAIBA) (Evaluation of the OW in the State of Paraiba)

Brasilia : IATTERMUND

PROCCARA (1976)

EMPRESA ASOCIATIVA CAMPESINA 'ISLETA' (Report on the Membership Enterprise 'Isleta')

Tegucigalpa, Honduras

PUGA, G. (1975)

HONDURAS : FORMS OF AGRARIAN SELF-GOVERNMENT

Presented at Second Conference on Self-Management, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

Reveau, R. (1980)

DEFENDRE L'UNITE ET LA DISCIPLINE DANS LA COOPERATIVE (Defending Unity abd Discipline in the Cooperative)

Port-au-Prince, Haiti : Editions Marcel Herz

Rojas J.J. (1988)

AUGE Y DECADENCIA DEL CORPORATIVISMO AGRARIO EN MEXICO (Rise and Fall of Agrarian Cooperativism in Mexico)

Chapingo University

SADET (n.d.)

ORGANIZATIONAL WORKSHOPS : WHAT ARE THEY?

Harare, Zimbabwe : SADET

Sariego, J. and A.Gonzalez (1997)

SEMINARIO TALLER DE CAPACITACION EN ORGANIZACION : EL CASO DE LA COOPERATIVE 'EL TIGRE' (EL SALVADOR) (The case of the Cooperative 'El Tigre' in El Salvador)

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Seidman, J. (1986-1987)

DE MORAIS' ORGANIZATIONL THEORY

cartoon series in Workteam, Gaborone, Botswana : Design Layout Graphics

SENA (1986)

EXPERIMENTAL ORGANIZATIONAL WORKSHOP. A METHODOLOGY FOR CAPACITATION AND ORGANIZATION

Caracas, Venezuela: SENA

Silveira, C.M., R.Mello and R.Gomes (1997)

WORK AND INCOME : THREE CAPACITATION MODELS (one chapter devoted to de Morais' OW)

Rio de Janeiro : FASE/GTZ

Sobrado, M.C. (1981)

APOGEO Y DECADENCIA DE LOS ARTESANOS (Rise and Fall of the Artisan Way)

Heredia, Costa Rica : PRACA/UNA

Sobrado, M.C. (1990)

TEORIA DE LA ORGANIZACION PARA TALLERES DE GENERACION DE EMPLEO (Theory of Work-Generating Workshops)

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Sobrado, M.C. (1994a)

CAPACITACION Y DISCAPACITACION EN LOS PROJECTOS DE DESAROLLO

Cuaderno de Ciencias Sociales, no.68, San Jose, Costa Rica

Sobrado, M.C. (1994b)

CAPACITACION EMPRESARIAL EN CONDICIONES DE TRANSICION EN EUROPEA ORIENTAL

Land Reform, Rome : FAO

Sobrado, M.C. (1994c)

INTERFERENCES AND RELATIONS OF DOMINATION IN THE CAPAICTATION PROCESS

research paper, Heredia, Costa Rica

Sobrado, M.C. (1996)

LA AUTONOMIA DE LA ORGANIZACION ES LA ENZIMA DEL DESAROLLO (The Autonomy of the Organization is the Yeast of Development)

Chapingo University, Mexico

Sobrado, M.C. (1997)

GERMINADORA MASIVA DE EMPRESAS Y EMPLEO (A Massive Enterprise and Workplace-generating Model)

Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica

Sobrado, M.C. (1999)

COOPSILENCIO : UN CUARTO DE SIGLO

in V. Barrantes, LA CONSTRUCCION DE UN SUENO

Sobrado, M.C. and C.S. de Morais (1981)

GUIA TEMATICA PARA PARTICIPAR EN EL SIMPOSIO DE ANALISIS SOBRE LOS LABORATORIOS EXPERIMENTALES (Thematic Guide for the Participants in the Symposium on the Analysis of the Organization Workshops)

Costa Rica : IICA

Sunday Mail (Zimbabwe) (1983)

BURGLAR BARS, SECURITY WALLS TELL THE STORY

article on Clodomir Santos de Morais

van Dam, C. (1982)

HET EXPERIMENTEEL LABORATORIUM : DE METHOLOGIE VAN SANTOS DE MORAIS

The Hague : CESO

Wilson, J. (n.d.)

DIARY OF A RESOURCE PERSON FROM PELUM, ZIMBABWE AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL WORKSHOP HELD AT MUNGUINE, MOZAMBIQUE

(unpublished)

 

 

 

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