Homepage

The Model

Draft projects

Articles published

Technologies

Annexed material

Downloads

 About Bakens Verzet

Stichting Bakens Verzet (NGO “Another Way”)

1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands

Reg.nr. 34235506  Chamber of Commerce/KvK Amsterdam

BTW/VAT nr. NL8150.17.972 B01

Bank: Triodos Bank : IBAN NL90 TRIO 078.13.27.598

 

Direction

T.E.(Terry) Manning

Schoener 50, 1771 ED Wieringerwerf, The Netherlands

Tel 0031-227-604128;

E-mail: (nameatendofline)@xs4all.nl; Homepage: http://www.flowman.nl :  bakensverzet

 


"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228

 


SANARPATTY INTEGRATED SELF-FINANCING RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

NEW HORIZONS FOR SANARPATTY

DINDIGUL DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU STATE, INDIA


Edition 01: 23 June, 2003


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY IN ENGLISH.

LIST OF KEY WORDS

Anhydrite use of, Banks role of in development, Gypsum composites  products, Bio-mass for cooking, Briquettes bio-mass, Capacitation workshops, Chain control integral, Clodomir Santos de Morais, CO2 emissions reduction of, Communication flows in development projects, Compost recycling, Composting toilets, Cookers high efficiency, Cooperation role in development, Development projects structures for, Development sustainable, Drinking water supply, Economy developing countries, Economy development projects, Economy foreign aid, Economy industrial development, Economy interest-free development, Economy Local Exchange Trading (LETS) systems, Economy nominal local currencies development of, Economy micro credits, Economy self-financed development, Economy taxation and development, Education hygiene, Gender role of women, Gypsum cheap, Hand pumps, Health Clubs development projects, Hygiene education, India integrated development, Industrial development, Information flow in development projects, Integral chain control, Integrated development projects, Interest role of, LETS systems, Loans interest-free, Local currency systems, Local Exchange Trading (LETS) systems, Micro-credit systems, Morais Clodomir Santos de, Organizational workshops (OW), sanarpatty India development, Photovoltaic (PV) home systems, Photovoltaic (PV)lighting, Photovoltaic (PV) pumps, Photovoltaic (PV) refrigeration, Poverty alleviation, Products regeneration of, Pumps solar, Pumps hand, Rainwater harvesting, Recycling compost, Recycling shops, Recycling waste, Regeneration of products, Rural water supply, Sanitation developing countries, Sanitation dry, Self-financing development projets, solar pumps submersible, Stoves high efficiency, Sustainable development, Tamil Nadu Sanarpatty development, Tanks Gypsum composites  local manufacture, Toilet facilities Gypsum composites , Toilets dry, Urine disposal, Washing places, Waste collection systems, Water purification UV, Water supply projects, Water supply rural, Water tanks Gypsum composites , Women role of in development, Workshops Moraisian

 


INTRODUCTION

TERRY MANNING

Terry Manning is a developer of technologies and self-financing integrated development concepts for the world's poor.

He also supports the promotion of the "Gypsum composites " technology developed by the Dutch technology developer Eos Consult. Gypsum composites  technology enables many items important to local development projects to be made in low cost labour-intensive local production units with 100% local value added.

He supports hygiene training programmes based on the formation of Community Health Clubs. These have been successfully developed and introduced by the NGO Zimbabwe A.H.E.A.D. Hygiene education will also be made available to schools.

He supports the use of mass capacitation techniques, as introduced by the Brazilian Clodomir Santos de Morais, through which the users themselves organise, execute, run, maintain, pay for and own the structures set up under the project.

The project New Horizons for Sanarpatty will be financed using a 10 year interest-free development loan for Euro 3.500.000, local currency or LETS (Local Exchange Trading) systems and a cooperative interest-free Micro-credit system modelled on the successful Grameen banks in Bangladesh.

The financial proposals allow funds in both the local LETS currencies and the formal, or ordinary, currency to be re-circulated - interest free- as many times as possible within the participating communities. Financial leakage from the project area is discouraged.

(MRS)M KALIYAMMAL and (MR)V.JOTHI

Messrs Kaliyammal and Jothi are local development experts from the project area. They have experience in local development in the Dindigul District in India and they are both well known and respected there. Mrs Kaliyammal has been charged with the formation of the Health Clubs and the other social structures. Mr Jothi will concentrate on the technical structures.

As nominees of the District Bhoodhan Gramadhan Development Sangh (DBGDS), they both wish to cooperate with Terry Manning to promote integrated self-financing development concepts in the Sanarpatty block of the Dindigul district in the State of Tamil Nadu in India. DBGDS is fully supported by the six Panchayats in the Sanarpatty Block (Chenkurchi, Kambiliampatti, V.S.Kotai, Madur, Rasakapatti, Siluvathur), by the Dindigul District council, and by the government of the State of Tamil Nadu through the Ministries for Poverty Alleviation, Rural Water Suppply, Rural development, Health, and Education, who collectively wish to co-finance and promote the project.

A local cooperative bank (the Sanarpatty Cooperative Development Bank) dedicated to development in the project area will be set up to support the project by pioneering the introduction of interest-free cooperative micro-credits for productivity development in the Sanarpatty Block area.

The project is founded on the idea that most people in the Sanarpatty project area are able and willing to pay for their own hygiene education, water supply, sanitation, rubbish disposal and bio-mass production structures provided they have the seed money necessary to get started. The seed money will be interest-free.

There is ample potential to develop the production of goods and services at community level in the project area where development is presently restricted by a chronic lack of formal money. Leakage of financial resources away from the project area makes the problem worse because it artificially limits the people's basic right to produce and exchange goods and services. The project blocks this financial leakage.

Curriculum of Messrs Kaliyammal and Jothi

Dstrict Boodham Gramadhan Development Sangh (DBGDS) is a non governmental, non profit making community based organization based in Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu State, India. It was formed in 1987 and registered under the Tamilnadu Society Act under number 78/87 and under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act with FCRA no. 075940322 dated 12th June 1997. The overall goal was to mobilize the community for the benefit of Dalit women in the Dindigul District.

DBGDS registration certificate

SCHEDULE 11 Constitution and Statutes of NGO District Boodham Gramadhan Develpment Sangh.

The organization has (description)

This proposal is essentially self-financing, subject to certain aspects involving interest payments, exchange rate variations and insurance set out in detail in the project document.

THE FOLLOWING DRAWINGS AND GRAPHS FORM AN INTEGRAL PART

OF THIS PROJECT PROPOSAL

DRAWING OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES

AUDITING STRUCTURES

CASH FLOW DIAGRAM

TANK SANGAMS - THE KEY STRUCTURES

WELL SANGAMS

DRAWING OF LETS STRUCTURES

HOW A LETS TRANSACTION WORKS

DRAWING OF WATER SYSTEM STRUCTURES

DRAWING OF WASTE DISPOSAL STRUCTURES

CHART ILLUSTRATING MICRO-LOANS SCHEME

HOW THE ORIGINAL SEED LOAN MONEY IS USED

THE INTEREST-FREE LOAN CYCLE

DRAWING OF TYPICAL WATER TANK AREA

DRAWING OF GYPSUM COMPOSITES  COMPOSTING TOILET TANK

DRAWING OF TYPICAL HIGH EFFICIENCY Gypsum composites  STOVE

TYPICAL PROJECT EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER (Items 1-30 of the budget)

TYPICAL PROJECT EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER (Items 31-58 of the budget)

TOTAL EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE FIRST QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE SECOND QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE THIRD QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE FOURTH QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE FIFTH QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE SIXTH QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE SEVENTH QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE EIGHTH QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE NINTH QUARTER

DETAILED FINAL EXPENDITURE

 


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED

Abbreviation

Description

CASO4

Calcium sulphate

DBGDS

District Boodham Gramadhan Development Sangh

DIAM

Diameter

DIAM EXT

External diameter

DIAM INT

Internal diameter

EG

For example

H2O

Water

LETS

Local exchange trading system

NGO

Non governmental organisation

PV

Photovoltaic

SHS

Solar home systems

TV

Television

UV

Ultra-violet

V

Volt

Wp

Watts peak

 


CONTENTS

Page

Contents

 

 

 

General cover

 

Draft letter to Minister

 

Cover page to executive summary

 

Executive summary

001

Cover page project document

 

List of key words

002

Introduction

003

Drawings and graphs part of the project documents

004

Contents

 

 

007

1. Project background

014

2. The project

015

2.01 Immediate goals

016

2.02 Long term goals

 

2.03 General economic bases of the project

018

2.04 Principles behind the project

 

2.05 The five conditions precedent for a project applications

019

2.06 Institutional structures

026

2.07 The question of ownership

027

2.08 Assurances as to performance

 

2.09 Taxation under the local exchange trading (LETS) systems

028

2.10 The effects of inflation on seed loan payments and gift content

029

2.11 Insurance and gift content

030

2.12 Information flow

031

2.13 Recycling of funds and imported goods

 

2.14 Project auditing

 

 

032

3. Planned works and results

 

3.1 Hygiene education structures

033

3.2 Sanitation facilities

034

3.3 Local Gypsum composites  production units

035

3.4 Water supply structures

036

3.5 Institutional developments

038

3.6 PV lighting television and refrigeration

 

3.7 Domestic solar home systems

039

3.8 Payments and on-going costs

 

 

040

4. Work plan

 

4.1 First, initial research phase

041

4.2 Second phase

 

4.2.0 Payment of the project funds

042

4.2.1 Health Clubs and Hygiene Education in schools

044

4.2.2 Local social structures

045

4.2.3 LETS local money system

046

4.2.4 Micro-credit system structures

048

4.2.5 Gypsum composites production units

049

4.2.6 Recycling structures

051

4.2.7 Structures for the production of bio-mass for stoves

052

4.2.8 Structures for radio station

053

4.2.9 Structures for drinking water distribution

055

4.3 Third, implementation phase

056

4.4 Fourth, second implementation phase

 

 

056

5. Short indicative budget

058

Outgo (capital)

 

On-going costs and income

059

Comments

 

Recycling of funds for micro-loans

 

 

060

SCHEDULE 1 - The project in detail

 

 

 

01. Justification of the project

062

02.0 Cooperation of the local people

063

02.1 Health clubs and hygiene education

064

02.2 Social structures

 

02.3 Local money LETS structures

067

02.4 Micro-credit structures

068

02.5 Gypsum composites  production units

069

02.6 Recycling structures

072

02.7 Energy efficient stoves and bio-mass production

073

02.8 Drinking water supply

 

02.8.1 Siting of boreholes and wells

 

02.8.2. Basic project specifications

115

02.8.3. Summary of water supply

118

02.8.4. Principles for siting water supply structures

119

02.8.5. Well linings

 

02.8.6. Equipment of water points near the users' houses

 

02.8.7 Budget items relating to the water supply systems

125

02.9. PV lighting, television and refrigeration

127

02.10. Reforestation and water harvesting

128

02.11. The project and educational structures

129

List of supporting schedules

 

Schedule 01 : The project in detail

 

Schedule 02 : Information on Clodomir Santos de Morais and the Organisational Workshops

:

SCHEDULE 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

SCHEDULE 2 ORGANIZATION WORKSHOPS

 

SCHEDULE 03 Project maps

 

SCHEDULE 04 Technical information on solar pumps

 

SCHEDULE 05 Technical information on hand-pumps

 

SCHEDULE 06 Technical information on the Gypsum composites process

 

SCHEDULE 07 The hygiene education programme

 

SCHEDULE 08 Operation of the local currency (LETS) systems

 

SCHEDULE 09 25 progressive steps for local development

 

SCHEDULE 10 MATERIAL FOR PRESENTATIONS USING TRANSPARENTS OR POWERPOINT

 

SCHEDULE 11 Constitution and Statutes of NGO District Boodhan Gramadhan Development Sangh

 

The Role of Micro-credit in integrated self-financing development projects

 

Water supply issues in self-financing integrated development projects for poverty alleviation

 

PV and Biomass aspects and their Financing

 

PV, a cornerstone of self-financing development projects for poverty alleviation in developing countries

 

New horizons for RE technologies in poverty alleviation projects

130

Acknowledgements

 

 

 


1. PROJECT BACKGROUND

1.01 Introduction

Basic hygiene education, sanitation, waste recycling, and clean drinking water are fundamental to healthy life. A third of the world's population still lacks access to clean drinking water. An even larger number lack reasonable sanitation.

Supplying such basic life needs warrants top priority within the framework of foreign aid programmes for the benefit of the poor in developing countries, including India.

Development of local production and services is hindered by a chronic lack of formal money. The little formal money there is leaks from the local economy to national, or more often, international, havens.

The project will permanently improve the quality of life and stimulate on-going local economic development of the people in the Sanarpatty project area. It will establish local exchange trading (LETS) systems for the exchange of local goods and services and provide interest-free seed money to fund micro-credit loans. It includes hygiene education, sanitation, clean drinking water in support of existing structures, lighting for study, efficient cooking equipment and means of producing bio-mass to fuel the stoves as well as a system for recycling non-organic solid waste. Services may be extended in a later phase to rainwater harvesting and Solar Home Systems. A project radio station will be set up. The project will also encourage local contribution to improved primary and junior secondary education structures.

The proposed hygiene training, sanitation, and drinking water systems take the social structures of the traditional communities into account. All structures are self-financing and remain financially viable and sustainable without the need for further seed money once the initial interest free seed loan has been repaid. Particular attention has been paid to ensuring that this project, promoted by a group operating in the interest of Dalit women, has acceptance by the entire population for the purposes of execution of the project. About 50% of the population in the project area is Dalit. The Kambliyampatty and V.S.Kottar are almost entirely Dalit. Chenkuruchi, Siluvathur, Madur and Rasakkapatti are mixed caste communities. 

1.02 The Dindigul district

Dindigul district is situated in the centre of Tamil Nadu state.

Map showing location of the Dindigul district

It is well linked by roads with all of the major cities of Tamil Nadu state. The district is separated from the Madurai District. Most of the villages in the district are drought prone. The economic level of the people is low.

1.03 The Sanarpatty project area

The Sanarpatty Block is one of the administrative divisions of the Dindigul district. It comprises six sub-locations called panchayats. Of the six panchayats Kambiliampatti and V.S.Kottai are almost entirely Dalit. The other four, Chenkuruchi, Siluvathur, Maud, and Rasakkapatti, are mixed-caste. They include people from castes such as the Udiyars, Gounder, Reddiars, Muthiriars, Chettiyars, Vanniars, and Vellalas.

The Sanarpatty project area covers about 450 km2, being about 30 kilometres from north to south and 15 km from west to east. The population in the area is estimated to be about 60.000, of which 50% is Dalit.

The people speak Tamil and English. Both languages are taught at the schools.

Most of the people are Hindu, and there are some 100 Hindu temples in the area. There are some Christians, with churches in the Siluvathur and Madur panchayats, often associated with schools. There is also a small Muslim community, with a mosque in Rasakapatti.

The literacy level in the area varies according to caste, but because of the Dalit population it is low. Litreacy amongst Dalit women, in particular, is not more than 20%. There are just 19 primary schools, 2 intermediate schools, and 4 high schools in the project area. In all the sub-locations in the Sanarpatty area there is a severe shortage of schools open to the Dalit population. The elementary schools (present in about 40 villages) cover education up to the 5th standard. For further education, children have to cover large distances to reach schools.

Students from wealthier families seek admission in schools outside the project area with better facilities.

There is a severe lack of facilities in primary schools, and for evening classes and vocational training centres, to cater for the real and growing educational needs of the population.

Maps of the area are available in SCHEDULE 03 - Project maps.

1.04 Political and social structures

The local authorities are the local councils or panchayats of which there are six in the project area, Chenkuruchi, Kambiliampatty, Siluvathur, Madur, V.S.Kotai, and Rasakapatty. In each village there is a separate "traditional" panchayat set up of for the Dalits. These serve mostly for settling disputes and organising village celebrations. They do not have a significant impact on the lives of the people .

Dspite the fact the Dalits are by far the largest community, they do not participate widely in the village and panchayat councils, except for the ones reserved for Dalits. The independence of Dalit the few members on these councils is questionable. This reflects village reality where economic power and caste hierarchy tend to dominate in the councils which are mostly run by higher caste males (mirasdars).  Dalit women are not represented at all.

Less than 1% of Dalit women have any property in their own names. 14.5% of Dalit me are landless labourers. More than 80% own less than one hectare of land.

Segregation of Dalits is practised in all of the mixed-caste villages. Discrimination includes prohibitions on:
-drawing water from wells or boreholes located in non-Dalit areas.
-washing and bathing on the embankments of canals
-making Dalit funeral processions along high-caste streets
-making Dalit festivals in high-caste streets
-participation in the common village meetings
-sitting in tea-rooms and drinking coffee or tea from the same cups and glasses

There is strong discrimination against Dalit women even amongst the Dalit community itself. The Dalit structures are dominated by the urban middle-class male elite. 

To by-pass these traditional social and economic problems, this project sets up its own administrative structures which operate in cooperation with but independently of the political structures. Dalits and in particular Dalit women play a major role in the designing, execution, running, maintenance, ownership of and payment for the structures set up.

The health clubs form a platform for women, especially Dalit women in Dalit areas, so that they can take full part in meetings and vote en bloc and participate fully in the running of the financial and social structures set up. Compare this with the limited project originally presented by District Boodhan Gramadhan Development Sangh (DBGDS):

Original DBGDS plan incorporated in this project

1.05 Basic economic information

The Sanarpatty area is extremely poor. This is why it has been selected for the project. A large part of the labour force, especially the Dalits, is illiterate. There is large scale migration, especially during the dry season, to nearby towns such as Coimbatore and Trichy in search of employment, for instance  in brick kilns and as labourers in the building sector. With the worsening of the economic situation, younger people will have to migrate to other states in India and compete on the labour market there.

Women in general, and Dalit women in particular, are paid very low wages, usually not more than 15 rupees or 35 Eurocents per day, which is half of what the men earn. Annual income for labourers is therefore not more than Euro 100-250 per year.  There are no benefits such as leave, bonus, medical allowances. Dalit women are often sexual targets by employers, managers and other male workers. Dalit women are not provided with maternity facilities and there is no compensation paid for accidents arising in the course of their work.

The introduction of machinery in agriculture is having a major impact on employment in the project area, causing unemployment and underemployment in the most defenceless part of the community, especially amongst Dalit women. This is particularly true of traditional seed  collection, conservation, and distribution for agricultural purposes, one of the most important sources of income for these women. Multinational companies force local farmers to buy patented seed each year, with the disastrous consequences internationally denounced by the leading Indian milieu activist Vandana Shiva and many others.

This project allows for traditional seed banks and plant nurseries to be set up to ensure that native plant strains are preserved and used.

Local production in the area is mainly based on staple foods such as rice (15%), wheat (5%) and maize (5%). The people work on an average for ten hours a day in the fields.

There is an electricity supply network connection in many of the villages in the project area. While this facilitates project execution, it is does not mean that the people all benefit from electricity in their homes. Electricity is used collectively for street lighting, but many people are unable to pay for electricity connection costs or for the electricity itself. The electricity supply is not reliable and power cuts are frequent.

1.06 Water

Water is perceived to be a major problem, notwithstanding the commendable efforts of the Tamil Nadu state government to make basic provisions for the people.

The average annual precipitation in the area is 100 mm.

There is just one river in the area. It flows near the villages of Rasakapatty and Akkaraipatty. It carries water only during the rainy season, when the water is in any case polluted.

The rainy season runs from October to December. It is important for small farmers to find a way of extending this season by a few weeks to ensure greater security against loss of crops through drought. A water harvesting section has been introduced to this project for this purpose.

Current sources of drinking water are piped water, boreholes, wells and rainwater from roof harvesting.

The supply of water is considered inadequate to sustain both the domestic and industrial needs.

Drinking water is supplied at government taps. It is distributed according to a pre-arranged timetable. Water drawn at the taps is not paid for separately. Electrical motors and pumps are used in many cases to pump water into a large tank, from which the water flows by gravity to the public taps. A fee of 300 Rupees (about Euro 6) is paid each six months to the panchayat union office. This means the water costs Euro 1 per family per month. Access to the public taps can depend on caste, and there are separate facilities for Dalits and for other castes.

In the project area there at present 78 boreholes, in 64 villages. There are already some 260 hand-pumps installed in the area. However, wells tend to go dry during the dry season. Existing supplies have been taken carefully into account when designing the water supply part of this project. Special attention has been paid to making sure that the poorest, the Dalits, have access to clean drinking water close to their homes.

Water related diseases in the area include typhoid, dysentery and cold fever.

Some rain water is harvested during the rainy season, but this is of little help in solving water supply problems during the dry season.

The use of hot water is not common.

Notwithstanding the water services available, some women still have to walk a long way to fetch water. More than 40 of the villages are without any form of water supply, especially during the dry season.

For these reasons this project foresees a complete supplementary solar operated distributed drinking water system.

1.07 Diet

The main sources of staple food are local farm produce, mainly rice, wheat and maize.

Malnutrition has been increasing in the district. However, diet-related diseases are limited to fever and colds.

Cases of malnutrition are highest among the landless Dalit population who, because of lack of ownership of land, can not diversify their food production and intake. They therefore consume the available food with total disregard to its nutritional value.

1.08 Cooking

Cooking is the most energy intensive activity in the project area.

Cooking is currently done over an open fire, leading to intense air pollution both inside the houses and in the community.

Fuels used for cooking are wood and petroleum products such as kerosene. Of these wood fuel is the predominant fuel in both rural and urban areas, and accounts for about 75% of fuel consumption. The remaining 25% of the families use kerosine, which costs 8 rupees, or 15 Eurocents a litre. The wood is fetched by women once every one or two weeks. This is a time consuming operation.

Average cooking time is about 3 hours per day.

Food is cooked in baked mud pots aluminium pots.

Women collect bundles of wood for fuel on their own account. Kerosene costs 0.15 Eurocent per litre. Consumption (for cooking and lighting) is two litres per day, which means that kerosene costs Euro 2 per family per week, or Euro 8 per family per month. It therefore represents an area where major savings can be attained by the introduction of high-efficiency stoves and photovoltaic lighting systems.

Charcoal is also used ??. This costs ??

All staple foods are cooked usually by women. Each meal takes at least an hour to prepare, depending on the available fuel and the type of foodstuffs. Large parts of meagre family incomes are therefore spent on fuel for cooking. The unsustainable use of wood leads to de-forestation and erosion, air pollution and health hazards. Moreover, the traditional cooking methods used are inefficient. The project therefore introduces highly efficient stoves. They will be locally manufactured within local currency LETS systems.

Bio-mass needed to fuel the stoves will also be locally produced and treated, without limiting the use of the natural fertilisers in local agricultural production.

Locally manufactured solar cookers will also be introduced where daytime cooking does not contrast with local customs. An important part of all loan repayments and expenditure under this project will be funded by introducing energy efficient stoves and growing bio-mass for fuel.

The project will bring major savings in the costs of cooking. These savings alone will cover most if not all of the monthly contributions made by the families to the project.

1.09 Lighting and study

Kerosene lamps are mostly used for lighting for study. One litre of kerosene per day is needed for this.

There are presently no evening classes in the schools. Where these are requested by the local population, the schools will be equipped with photovoltaic lighting systems.

1.10 Transport

Most of the roads in the area are open the whole year round.

The kinds of transport available include buses and bicycles. The maximum distance covered is 20km, and the cost for a ride is about 20 rupees per head, or 42 Eurocents.

Animals are also used for transport. Bullock cart races is a "sport" amongst unemployed youth.

The project will look at the possibility of setting up local transport systems under the local money systems set up.

1.11 Communication

Public communication systems exist in the project area. There are some 60 public telephone booths and six post offices. The rates charged are fixed by the government.

Space will be given under the interest-free micro-credit systems to be set up for local information shops offering telephone, fax and internet possibilities. Some tank Sangams may wish to set up a communications system at tank Sangam level.

Infrastructural development with improved means of communication is perceived to be very important in the project area.

1.12 Hygiene education and health

About 80% of pregnant Dalit women suffer from anaemia.

Hygiene education courses in Tamil and English are available at the schools. School courses include a basic introduction to personal and environmental hygiene. Universal basic hygiene aspects are followed by most of the households.

There are no courses hygiene education courses available for training women and especially Dalit girls who are unable to go to school.

Apart from setting up health clubs at tank Sangam (sangam) level, the project can make an important contribution in the fight against these diseases by providing clean water sanitation and improved drainage, and by eliminating smoke hazards, stagnant waters, and ensuring a more varied diet.

Health care in clinics is inadequate and often a long way away from the users. There are no facilities at all in the Chenkurchi panchayat, one private clinic in Kambilliampatti, one public health centre in Siluvathur which has no beds but handles about 500 patients a day, and no structure at all in Madur. In Kottai there is one clinic in Kottai itself, and a sub-health centre in Markanpatti. Rasakapatti has one public health centre.

1.13 Sanitation

The people have generally no private sanitation facilities at all. People dispose of their urine and excreta on wasteland fields and river beds. If there is water in the river, people clean themselves using the river water. Separate areas are designated for use by men and women.

Installation of appropriate sanitation facilities is therefore one of the major goals of this project.

1.14 Rubbish collection

There is no organised rubbish collection or waste recycling structure in the project area.

Rubbish in the project area which is not disposed of properly poses a health hazard and allows flies, rats and other pests to breed. It also causes bad smells.

The project includes setting up local recycling centres to add value to waste products. It enables recycling of some materials within the local currency systems. Export of residual waste materials will provide formal currency income to repay micro-credit loans advanced to the recycling centres.

1.15 Housing

95% of the Dalit families live in huts made from mud and hay. The Dalits do not have their own houses. They have only 2% of space around their houses, so there is no space for them to have a garden.

Most of the other houses in the project area measure just 5 meters by 3 meters. They use locally available materials such as tiles and wood.

Seasonal heating is not usually required or considered to be a priority.

The project will improve the general condition of life of the inhabitants by improving the air condition in the homes, supplying a complete sanitation and waste disposal system, eliminating stagnant waters, and improving the structural aspects of traditional roofing.


2. THE PROJECT

The project is centred on basic hygiene education, on the installation of sustainable sanitation, on the creation of a supplementary distributed clean drinking water system, PV lighting for study where required, for the people of the Sanarpatty area in the Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu state in India, and on the supply of efficient stoves for cooking, the production of bio-mass to fuel them, and recycling at local level and disposal of non-organic waste.

The project includes setting up Community Health Clubs for hygiene education and, where required, hygiene education courses in schools; provides sustainable toilet and wastewater facilities, wells and boreholes (wherever necessary), pumps, and water tanks; establishes local exchange trading (LETS) systems to promote local exchange of goods and services; and implements an interest-free revolving micro-credit system to pay in formal currency for items and services originating outside the local communities.

The project also refers to PV (photovoltaic) lighting where considered necessary for study and in clinics, and, where required, PV refrigeration for medicines. Any PV lighting needed for separate local production initiatives would be included within their respected micro-credit schemes. PV operated TV sets for education can be included. Private Solar Home Systems (SHS) may be financed by the Local Bank where users are able to sustain their obligations under a hire purchase agreement for the SHS as well as meet their obligations under the project itself.

High efficiency stoves for cooking will be produced with 100% local value added as will the bio-mass necessary to fuel them.

Where daytime cooking is not in conflict with local customs, local manufacture of Gypsum composites  solar cookers will be set up under the LETS systems.

Recycling centres will be set up to recycle non-organic refuse within the local currency systems.

Harvesting rain-water to increase agricultural production and the general quality of life is promoted.

The project cost is Euro 3,750,000, which can be 100% financed through an interest free loan with a 10 year repayment time. Of the interest-free loan, 75% is expected to be made available within the framework of the country programme of one or more aid partners, and 25% by the government of the State of Tamil Nadu.

A detailed indicative budget is set out on page 55 ???

The project will be continued for at least a further 8 years beyond the initial two years' start-up period. After the initial two years, further development will be generated by the communities themselves under the supervision of the Project Coordinator.

The initial project will take 24 months from the date funding is approved, more particularly:
- Phase 1 : preparation and submission of the basic project.
- Phase 2 : final project preparation, arrangements with tax authorities, formation of Health Clubs and starting hygiene education, starting organisation of Gypsum composites production units, setting up of local currency LETS groups; final project approval : 6 months
- Phase 3 : continuing hygiene education, building the sanitation services, installing wells, pumps and tanks, starting cooker production, organising bio-mass production, setting up the recycling centres : 18 months
- Phase 4 : installing water purification units and PV lighting systems for study purposes. Continued production of cookers and of bio-mass to fuel them. Rain-water harvesting.

From the third year onwards local development will be continued and extended to phase 5.

- Phase 5 : Extension to Solar Home Systems, water harvesting, and soil conservation and reforestation projects.


2.1 IMMEDIATE GOALS

The immediate goals of the project are:

a) To extend existing hygiene education activities by establishing Community Health Clubs in the Sanarpatty project area and, where necessary, promoting formal hygiene education courses in schools.

b) To install technically appropriate sanitation for the people in the Sanarpatty block.

c) To provide a permanent safe drinking water supply in the project area in all foreseeable circumstances.

d) To make safe drinking water available within a radius of 150-200m from users' homes.

e) To contribute to the fight against water-related diseases through hygiene education, the supply of appropriate sanitation and clean drinking water systems.

f) To reduce the work load on women, especially Dalit women

g) To provide for the continuity of health, sanitation and drinking water systems by establishing appropriate institutional structures.

h) To enable students and others who wish to study in the evening to do so.

i) To reduce the use of wood and promote reforestation.

j) To introduce efficient bio-mass fuelled means of cooking and solar cookers for daytime applications.

k) To create added value through recycling of non-organic waste.

l) To keep available financial resources (LETS money and formal money) revolving within the beneficiary communities.

m) To stimulate on-going local industrial and agricultural development through the use of local currency (LETS) and micro-credit systems.

n) To create large-scale job opportunities

2.2 LONG TERM GOALS

The long term goals of the project are:

a)To sustain on-going improvement of the general quality of life wellbeing and health of the local people.

b)To free more human resources for local production and development.

c)To reduce water-borne diseases so that medical staff and financial resources can be re-directed to other health objectives such as vaccination programmes and preventive medicine.

d)To decrease infant mortality and promote family planning.

e)To increase literacy levels.

f)To eliminate dependency on fuels imported from outside the project area.

g)To help reduce deforestation and global warming.

h)To create value added from locally recycled non-organic solid waste.

i)To create a "maintenance culture" to conserve the investments made.

j)To increase the local pool of expertise so that local people can improve their sustainable well-being and development by identifying and solving problems, including erosion, with a minimum of outside help.

k)To create full employment in the project area.

l) To contribute to the gradual integration of Dalits and especially Dalit women in local society.

2.3 GENERAL ECONOMIC BASES OF THE PROJECT

a)The project will be financed by interest-free seed capital in the form of a 'green' loan repayable over a period of 10 years.

b)75% of this capital will be contributed within the framework of the "country programme" of one or more of India's development aid partners, and the remaining 25% by the Tamil Nadu government its (Water and Sanitation/Rural Development department).

c)General financial supervision will be in line with section 2.14 of this project, on terms agreed with the lenders of the seed capital, but with the elimination of unnecessary bureaucratic restraints.

d)Seed capital repaid by users in monthly instalments will be retained in the local area until the end of the loan term. During that time, the repayments will be used to grant revolving interest-free micro-credits for local development.

e)Seed capital not required for short term use, will similarly be used to grant interest-free revolving micro-credits.

f)Local currency (LETS) systems set up within the framework of the project will form the general method of payment for most local goods and services produced at community level, including those provided for the project from within the local community.

g)The part of the maintenance money destined for long term replacement of capital items will also be recycled as interest-free micro-credits until it is needed.

h)Users will be 100% responsible for on-going administration, capital repayments, and maintenance costs. Each household will pay a monthly contribution of Euro  0.60 per family member (Euro 3 per family of 5) to cover all on-going maintenance and capital repayment costs. The instalments will be to a large extent covered by savings on funds traditionally spent on fuel, water and waste removal and by way of registration for Carbon Emission Reduction certificates under the Kyoto treaty.

i)The project encourages open competition and free enterprise within the framework of a cooperative and non-profit-making global financial structure.

j)Administration, construction and maintenance work will be done by local operators and villagers who will be paid mostly in local LETS currencies.

k)Local work will be paid for at current local pay rates expressed in the local LETS currencies.

l)The on-going administration costs of the Project Coordinator are specified in the project budget.

m)Users must make their first monthly contribution in advance, as project structures are put into use.

n)The tank Sangams will be paid a small monthly allowance in formal currency, and receive an allowance in local LETS money for their work. The well Sangams will be paid a monthly allowance under the local LETS currencies for their work.

o)Individual women or women's groups will, without payment, each look after their own sanitation units.

p)Regular inspection of installations will be paid as necessary in the local LETS currencies.

q)The operation of the local bank (The Sanarpatty Cooperative Development Bank) to be set up may be supported and supervised by a international Green Bank to be named.

r)The Tamil Nadu Government, the Dindigul District Council, the Sanarpatty Block Council, and the six Panchayat Councils in the project area have undertaken not to intervene to impede the development of the local LETS currencies either during or after the project period.

s)The Project Coordinator will reach a specific agreement with the ( applicable tax authorities) before the start of the project as to taxation of activities under the Local Exchange Trading (LETS) systems.

t)Before the project starts, a formal agreement will be made to ensure ownership of the project is vested in the beneficiary communities, subject to formal handing over when the final instalment of the interest-free seed loan is repaid.

u)The local people design, execute, install, run, maintain, own and pay for all project structures.

v)All products and services supplied by the local people for the project will be paid under the local money systems. Those supplying products or goods for the project before the local money systems are set up will be paid from the project funds in formal currency.

2.4 PRINCIPLES BEHIND THE PROJECT

2.4.1 The basic principles behind the project are:

a)The enhancement of self-sufficiency in local economies.

b)Existing social traditions will not suffer.

c)Local expertise, labour and materials will be used.

d)Women will play an active role in the project.

e)The people of the Sanarpatty area must be able and willing to take full responsibility for all goods and services provided under the project and for its administration.

f)The users must contribute financially to loan repayments, cover on-going costs and accept the powers of the elected tank- and well Sangams.

g)The project will be self-funding. Savings on traditional fuel costs for cooking and services will cover most of the project costs.

h)The supply of traditional natural fertiliser for agricultural purposes will not be compromised.

i)Each individual user will be enabled to meet his financial commitments to the project.

Household difficulties in meeting monthly quotas can be cushioned either from the monthly allowances received by the tank Sangams, or by creating a simple LETS system safety net. Members temporarily in difficulty could be allowed to run up a larger than usual debit balance. Members permanently in difficulty could perform services within the LETS group in exchange for group payment of their outstanding debts.

j)'Small is beautiful'. Small decentralized systems are to be preferred wherever possible. This promotes close contact of the people of the Sanarpatty Division with the installation and running of their own local infrastructure.

k) Local LETS currencies will complement the use of formal money. They will make up for the lack of formal money that would otherwise be needed to expand the quantity of local goods and services. Economic development within the LETS systems will also stimulate growth in the formal economy and increase its formal tax base.

l)The seed loan capital will be systematically recycled to users as interest-free micro-credits for productivity development. The micro-credits will allow goods and services that cannot be locally produced to be bought with formal currency outside the project area.

m)Leakage of formal currency out of the project area will be reduced. Seed capital will be retained in the local area during the 10 year interest-free loan period.

2.5 FIVE BASIC CONDITIONS

This project has been worked out with the users, who execute, run, maintain, pay for and own all the structures. Five basic conditions have been accepted by the users. Without them, this integrated self-financing development project could not be executed.

They are:

2.1 Acceptation of Health Clubs. These do not only serve the purposes of offering basic hygiene education courses. They also serve as a platform for women, so that they can organise themselves and participate and play an important role in the various structures foreseen. The health clubs therefore constitute a means of addressing the so-called "gender problem".

2.2 Willingness to pay at least the equivalent in Indian rupees of Euro 0.60 per month  (the equivalent in Indian rupees of Euro 3 per family of 5) into a Cooperative Development Fund. This payment covers the entire package of basic services foreseen including hygiene education, drinking water supply, sanitation, waste removal, high efficiency stoves and fuel for them, and lighting for study purposes. This contribution is obligatory for every  family in the project area.

2.3 Acceptance of the use of local exchange trading (LETS) systems, which enable goods and services originating in the project area to be exchanged without the need for formal money.

2.4 Acceptance of the GYPSUM COMPOSITES process which enables most of the items required for local development to be made locally with 100% local value added within the framework of the local LETS systems in local low cost labour intensive production units.

2.5 Acceptance of dry composting toilet systems with the separation of urine and faeces. Aspects relating to the form, the colour, the finish, privacy and similar will all be discussed with and decided by the users. The dry toilet systems foreseen enable waste to be recycled at household level so that problems connected with the pollution of surface and ground water can be addressed at local level without the need for major investments.

2.6 INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES

FOR A DRAWING SHOWING THE PROJECT STRUCTURES SELECT:

DRAWING OF STRUCTURES
The NGO District Bhoodhan Gramadhan Development Sangh, Kambilliampatty, Tamil Nadu State, India
AUDITING STRUCTURES
CASH FLOW DIAGRAM
HOW THE ORIGINAL SEED LOAN MONEY IS USED
TANK SANGAMS - THE KEY STRUCTURES
WELL SANGAMS

The responsibilities of the various parties which would presumably be involved in the project are:

2.6.01 THE LOCAL NGO District Boodhan Gramadhan Development Sangh, Kambilliampatty, Tamil Nadu State, India

The NGO DBGDS District Bhoodhan Gramadhan Development Sangh, Kambilliampatty, Tamil Nadu State, India

The NGO DBGDS officially fronts for the project. Its constitution and statutes are attached to this project as Schedule 11. The members of the board of the NGO DBGDS are fully representative of the people in the Project area, including the Dalits, and enjoy the full confidence and support of the people. Their functions are honorary.

Financing parties may nominate their representatives (eventually paid by the financing parties themselves) to the board of the NGO, with the task of acting as auditors and for the purpose of monitoring progress.

The NGO approves the project and presents it for financing within the framework of a country programme supported by a donor government.

The NGO nominates the project coordinator and puts the project funds at the free and unconditional disposal of the Project Coordinator in a bank account in the name of the Project.

The NGO does not interfere in the execution of the project, except to carry out its auditing and monitoring duties. It is the counterpart of the project coordinator.

2.6.02 THE PROJECT COORDINATOR (Mr M Kaliyammal)

Mrs Kaliyammal is responsible, together with Terry Manning, for the project preparation, for contacts with local authorities and banks and with the users, for the actual implementation of the project. She is also responsible for all professional work or operations that cannot, at the time of the project, be provided from within the local communities. She is also in charge of the maintenance of the project, for collecting the monthly contributions of the users (through the tank Sangams) and for general supervision of payments out of the project accounts. For technical aspects, Mrs Kaliyammal will be assisted by Mr  V. Jothi who will answwer to Mrs Kaliyammal and also coordinate the establishment of the local Gypsum composites  production units and the network of recycling centres. The fees of the coordinator and her assistant are in the public domain and formalised in the Project budget.
Curriculum Messrs Maliyammal and Jothi

2.6.03 TERRY MANNING

Terry Manning is responsible for formulating the project, initial coordination with the NGO Zimbabwe A.H.E.A.D., initial contacts for setting up the Organizational Workshops, for the organisation (through the Workshops) of the local money LETS systems, setting up a Micro Credit system, coordinating ith EOS Consult in setting up local Gypsum composites production units, delivering (locally made) pumps, PV-panels and related materials needed to implement the project. He will act as consultant to the Project Coordinator (through the Workshops) for the training and supervision of water supply, water quality and hygiene control and maintenance personnel identified during the Workshops.

2.6.04 ORGANISATIONAL WORKSHOPS

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ORGANIZATION WORKSHOPS

All activities will be executed by the local people themselves. Organizational workshops (mass capacitation workshops or OW's) following the method of the Brazilian Clodomir Santos de Morais will be held for the various sectors of activity involved. During the workshops the users will organise themselves respecting the principles of the division of labour.

See Schedule 2 for information on Organizational Workshops.

Amongst the activities for which Organizational Workshops would be held are:

Setting up Health Clubs
Setting up Tanks and Well Sangams
Setting up the local money (LETS) systems
Setting up Gypsum composites production units
Setting up structures for the water supply systems
Setting up structures for the sanitation systems
Setting up structures for the growing of bio-mass to fuel high efficiency stoves
Setting up the local bank and/or the Cooperative Development Fund
Setting up the waste recycling system
Setting up structures for rainwater harvesting
Setting up the local radio station
Setting up export-import cooperatives
Setting up a net-work of local agrarian consultants

The costs of the Workshops are set out separately in the balance sheet.

The Organizational workshops will typically directly involve about 5.000 users representing some 15% of the adult population.

2.6.05 COUNTRY PRORAMME ADMINISTRATOR

The administrators of the country programme who agree to supply external funds will, on acceptance, make available its 75% share of the interest-free loan necessary for the project and nominate structures and channels for supervising the project expenditure and liaising with other parties.

2.6.06 THE STATE OF TAMIL NADU

The local funding Authority will be an enabling body only. It will guarantee the continuity of the local currency (LETS) systems. Before the project begins, it will guarantee transfer of ownership of the project to the local communities when the seed loan is repaid. It will ensure, by agreement with the Government of India and the State Government, that goods imported for the project come into India Duty Free. It will authorise without creating unjustified obstacles the siting of boreholes, wells, feed-pipes, tanks and others structures necessary to the execution of the project.

It may take full political credit for the project, but will agree not to otherwise intervene in its organisation, implementation or day to day running.

2.6.07 LOCALLY ELECTED MP(name him)

The local MP has agreed to do everything in his power to guarantee respect by the national, regional and local administrative authorities the continuity of the local currency (LETS) systems, the importation of goods destined for the project without the application of customs duties taxes or other formal levies, and the transfer of the project structures to the users.

He will act as liaison points between the Project Coordinators on the one hand and the local funding authority and the local political institutions on the other. He may take full political credit for the project, but will agree not to otherwise intervene in its organisation, implementation or day to day running.

2.6.08 THE DINDIGUL DISTRICT COUNCIL

The Dindigul district council will formally approve the project. It will act as an enabling body. It may take full political credit for the project implementation, but will not otherwise intervene in the organisation, implementation or day to day running of the project. It will guarantee and respect decisions of the vested authorities in relation to ownership of the project goods and services, and fully support the local currency (LETS) systems and the duty-free entry into the project area of goods to be used in the project.

The council will approve reasonable project proposals for laying and embedding water pipelines to dedicated water tanks, drilling bore holes, digging wells, locating and building sanitation facilities, siting of Gypsum composites  manufacturing units, siting of, and collection of rubbish by, recycling centres.

2.6.09 THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF TAMIL NADU

The Ministry of Health is directly responsible for health services in the project area. It will respect the administrative decisions taken by the Dindigul district council relating to the Project and will approve of the use of its own Health Workers within the framework of the Community Health Clubs' hygiene education programme to be set up by Zimbabwe A.H.E.A.D. Full advantage will be taken from existing initiatives.

The health authorities and the water and sanitation committees operating under the District Water and Sanitation Programmes (WASP) will approve that their workers be paid in the local LETS currencies for any work not already covered under their existing salaries.

They will approve that ownership of drinking water facilities, sanitation services where supplied, PV lighting, PV refrigeration, and water testing equipment placed in clinics within the project area be vested in the tank Sangams in whose areas the clinics are situated.

They will support formal hygiene education courses in schools, where required, in the project area.

They will reach an agreement with the project coordinator to ensure training of (women) users at on-going checks of water quality, and systematic inspections of the sanitation facilities built within the framework of the project. Testing and inspection work not already included within the Health Workers' salaries will be paid for in the local LETS currencies. The equipment for conducting such systematic water quality tests will be made available under the project to a local clinic or hospital and financed by testing work carried out by the clinic for third parties outside of the project area.

PV lighting, sanitation where needed and refrigeration for medicines for the clinics in the project area which are not on the grid will be paid for by the communities as they do for drinking water facilities dedicated to the clinics and schools in the project area. Ownership would in this case be vested in the tank Sangam in whose territory the clinic is located. PV lighting and refrigeration installations in clinics outside the project area serving users inside the project area need to be separately discussed. The disposal, where required, of specialised waste from clinics will be addressed separately.

The health authorities will help train people to make regular hygiene inspections of the local recycling centres.

2.6.10 THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION OF TAMIL NADU

The education authorities will approve that ownership of drinking water and sanitation facilities and PV lighting placed in schools within the project area be vested in the tank Sangams where the schools are located. They will also approve that the teachers' Sangams nominated to operate water and sanitation services and PV lighting report to the local tank Sangams.

They will support hygiene education courses in the schools in the project area and approve the reasonable course curriculum presented by the Project Coordinators and apply it during normal school hours.

2.6.11 THE LOCAL TAX AUTHORITIES

The Project Coordinators will reach a binding agreement with the tax authorities, before the Project gets under way, to ensure that the tax authorities are not deprived of current tax revenue.

The project is based on a tax moratorium of at least 20 years on all LETS activities.

The tax authorities will define LETS activities carried out in LETS currencies under the project as non-commercial, and therefore non-taxable.

2.6.12 THE SANARPATTY COOPERATIVE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT BANK

After its institution, the Sanarpatty Cooperative local development bank will administer project funds actually deposited in the Sanarpatty Block, Tamil Nadu State, India. On the instruction of the Project Coordinators, it will formally administer Grameen Bank style interest-free micro-credit loans and repayments and the project funds, in cooperation with the External Green Bank. It will NOT intervene in the decisions relating to the granting of the loans themselves which will be made by the project coordinators in consultation with the communities. All shares in the bank will be held on trust for the people of the project area.

The bank may autonomously finance and administer interest-free micro-loans for the installation of solar home and other sustainable systems for individual non-productive household use.

2.6.13 THE EXTERNAL BANK  (international partner of Central Bank of India) AND THE CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA

The external funding authority will pass its financial contribution through an appropriate financial institution, where possible a Green Bank, partner of the Cental Bank of India, willing to act as adviser to the Sanarpatty Local Cooperative Development bank. The external Bank will, on the instruction of the project coordinators, deposit project monies in India with the Central Bank of India, Kambiliampatty, which will pass the funds on to and supervise  the Sanarpatty Local Cooperative Development Bank, when it is created. The external bank will support the Sanarpatty Local Cooperative Development Bank in setting up the Micro-credit system for local development.

2.6.14 THE LOCAL GYPSUM COMPOSITES PRODUCTION UNITS

These units will make, with a sanitary finish where necessary, ecological items such as water tanks, water containers, well-linings, san-plats in low cost labour intensive production units with up to 100% local value added. They will also make the high efficiency stoves and solar cookers. The Project will finance them on an interest-free basis with a pay-back period of 3-5 years. They will operate autonomously and negotiate payment of any royalties directly with the Technology Owner. They will usually sell their products within the project areas in the local LETS currencies, and outside the Project areas in formal currency. Precedence will be given to making items of top priority to the Project. Ownership of the production units will pass to the factory owners when the loans have been repaid. Until then the factory owners will be responsible to the Project Coordinator.

2.6.15 TANK SANGAMS

TANK SANGAMS - THE KEY STRUCTURES.

Every water tank supplies an area or group of households with water. A tank sangam, elected by the users, will supervise the use of the tank and its associated works, the collection of the monthly contributions and the carrying out of minor operations such as keeping tank areas clean. Each tank sangam will be paid a small monthly fee in formal currency, equivalent to perhaps Euro 5 per month, which it is free to spend as it wishes. Since women enjoy the greatest benefits from the execution and on-going management of the project, they should provide most of the tank sangam members. In Dalit areas, sangams will be made up from Dalits. In mixed caste areas, tank sangams may be Dalit, other castes, or mixed. 

Ownership of a given tank and its associated works, of the dedicated solar pump, PV array and array support, and of the dedicated pipeline from the pump to the tank is vested in its respective tank sangam. Passage of ownership of existing structures such as existing water supply systems to the tank sangams will be decided by the people themselves together where appropriate with the formal owners of the structures. 

The tank sangams will nominate one of their members to liaise with the system maintenance structures set up.

The tank sangams would also be responsible for study rooms and PV lighting and for coordination of recycling in their area.

The tanks sangams will be set up using the Moraisian organisational workshop method. Their form may vary from one area of the project to another.

They will nominate a literate person to liaise with the local LETS system coordinator.

The drinking water installations and sanitation services dedicated to schools and clinics will be supervised by commissions of respectively teachers and medical staff who will report to the tank sangams where the schools and clinics are located. Ownership of these installations will be vested in the local tank sangams with the consent of the local Education and Health authorities. The costs of loan repayment and maintenance of these installations are built into the users' monthly payments.

PV lighting, PV refrigeration, and water testing equipment supplied to clinics in the project area will likewise be run by the medical commission supervising the water supply. Ownership of these structures will be vested, with the consent of the Health Authorities, in the tank sangams where the clinics located. The medical commission will report to the local tank sangam.

The problem of specialist waste removal from clinics, where needed, will need to be studied separately.

The tank sangams will also convene regular meetings to discuss activities under their local LETS system and priorities for micro-credits.

The tank sangams will elect the well sangams.

The tank sangams will nominate a female candidate from their own area to carry out cooperative inspection of the sanitation, rainwater harvesting, and cooking facilities installed, and arrange for her training.

2.6.16 WELL SANGAMS

WELL SANGAMS

Every well/bore hole area comprises:
- The well or bore hole itself
- The backup hand pump installation
- The washing area
- The enclosure for PV systems and supports
- A guard system for the PV installations

Passage of ownership of existing structures such as water supply facilities to the well sangams will be decided by the people themselves together where appropriate with the formal owners of the structures.

The well sangam, elected by the tank sangams, supervises the use of the structures common to the water supply system, and carries out minor maintenance operations such as cleaning washing areas, well areas, and backup hand pump systems. The well sangam also regulates use of the well area in case of crisis or calamity. It collectively receives a small monthly payment in the local LETS currency (e.g. the equivalent of Euro 5 per month) which it is free to spend as it wishes. Members can be awarded a salary paid out under the local money LETS system. Since women enjoy the greatest benefits from the execution and on-going management of the project, they should provide most of the well sangam members.

The well sangams will answer to several tank sangams. The representatives of Dalit tank sangams will be Dalit. The representatives of tank sangams serving other castes will have a representative from a caste different from Dalits. The representatives of mixed tank sangams may be iether Dalit or come from another caste. The well sangams will therefore usually be mixed so its members must be able and willing to work with each other.

The well sangam will nominate one of its members to liaise with the system maintenance structures set up and with those responsible at tank sangam level for maintenance.

The well sangams will nominate a female candidate from their own area to monitor the cooperative inspection of the sanitation, rainwater harvesting, and cooking facilities carried out at tank sangam level, and arrange for her training.

2.6.17 ZIMBABWE A.H.E.A.D.

This NGO from Zimbabwe is the author of the original material for the Health Clubs.

BASIC COURSE FOR HEALTH CLUBS

The Community Health Clubs will be set up, and local health workers trained to lead the hygiene education courses during a Moraisian organizational workshop.

A hygiene education course for use in the schools in the project area will be developed the same way, and health workers and teachers trained to apply it.

2.6.18 EOS CONSULT

This Dutch company is the registered owner of the Gypsum composites process. 

NOTES ON GYPSUM COMPOSITES: General description of the Gypsum composites technology
PREPARATION OF GYPSUM COMPOSITES PRODUCTS. More information and an example of a more advanced application.

It will act as consultant during the Organization Workshop during which the local Gypsum composites  production units in the project area will be set up, and independently negotiate any conditions for technology transfer.

2.6.19 MEDICAL COMMISSIONS

Medical Commissions will supervise installations eventually supplied to clinics under the project. They will report to the tank sangam where the clinic is situated. This may be a Dalit tank sangam. They will where required arrange with the Project Coordinators collection of special medical waste products.

2.6.20 TEACHERS COMMISSIONS

Teachers commissions will supervise installations supplied to schools under the project.

They will support and apply the approved hygiene education courses in the schools.

They will report to the tank sangams where the school is located. The tank sangams may be Dalit sangams.

2.6.21 THE INDEPENDENT AUDITOR

Financing parties may nominate an independent auditor to co-sign payment authorisations made by the project. The independent auditor answers to the project NGO. District Bhoodhan Gramadhan Development Sangh. See par. 6.14 for more information.

2.7 THE QUESTION OF OWNERSHIP

As project structures are completed, ownership in them will formally pass to the people of the Sanarpatty block (through the tank sangams). Until all debts have been repaid, the project coordinator will retain the right to recover any installation supplied under the project should the people not meet their financial obligations for them. The interest free loans will be repaid over a period of 10 years. Until repayment has been completed, the project coordinators will retain formal responsibility towards the funding authorities for maintenance and administration.

Before the project starts, the project coordinators will offer to provide on-going maintenance, training of maintenance operators, and administration for an agreed fee for at least ten years. Pumps and structures have a life-span of more than 20 years. Once the seed capital has been fully repaid at the end of ten years, on-going monthly contributions will create a large surplus for future renewals and extensions of the project facilities. Until it is needed, this money can be re-invested interest free in micro-credit loans for local development.

Ownership of drinking water installations, PV lighting and refrigeration and water testing equipment installations in schools and clinics will be vested in the tank sangams where the schools and clinics are located. These may be Dalit sangams.

Ownership of PV lighting sanitation services and refrigeration installations in clinics outside the project area serving users inside the project area needs to be separately discussed.

Passage of ownership of certain existing collective structures, such as water supply structures, to the local tank and well sangams can be negotiated. It must be understood that many of the tank and well sangams may be Dalit. On passage of the existing structures, the tank and well sangams take over formal responsibility for the ongoing maintenance of the structures.   

2.8 ASSURANCES AS TO PERFORMANCE

The project involves complex on-going interaction amongst several parties. For the project to be finished on time, each party must agree to meet his obligations within the prescribed time. A penalty system may be used in case of late delivery of goods and services. If any party feels unable to meet the proposed time line he must say so when the project details are finalised at the start of phase two. The time line can then be adjusted to suit his needs before work begins.

Financial and political participants should each issue a written warranty that money, permits, and guarantees they have agreed to provide will be forthcoming on schedule.

As the project is cooperative in nature, the participating parties, and in particular those financing the project, are free to impose appropriate reporting and verification procedures which should be simple and direct to eliminate "red tape".

2.9 TAXATION UNDER THE LOCAL EXCHANGE TRADING (LETS) SYSTEMS

For a drawing of the proposed LETS structures refer to:
DRAWING
OF PROPOSED LETS STRUCTURES.


HOW A LETS TRANSACTION WORKS.

This project is designed to create rapid, sustainable and durable local development.

The project coordinator will reach a binding agreement with the (tax authorities --- name them!!), before the project gets under way, to ensure that the tax authorities are not deprived of current tax revenue.

The tax authorities will define LETS activities carried out in LETS currencies under the project as non-commercial, and therefore non-taxable.

The project is based on a tax moratorium of at least 20 years on all LETS activities.

After the moratorium, the following basic rules will apply:
-1. LETS exchanges where a user helps a friend, or performs a job on a "one-off" basis are not taxable.
-2. LETS exchanges involving activities not part of the normal business activities of the supplier are excluded.
-3. The expression "normal business activities" will be interpreted in the manner most favourable to the users.
-4. Normal LETS exchanges by businesses are taxable.
-5. All costs and business expenses are tax deductible.
-6. Businesses will be taxed in respect of LETS exchanges on the net profits they generate from them.


2.10 THE EFFECTS OF INFLATION ON SEED LOAN REPAYMENTS AND GIFT CONTENT

This project sets up a user friendly interest-free financial environment based on the constructive recycling of a ten year interest-free loan and the creation of local exchange trading systems.

Users repay the interest-free loan after ten years. At that point of time they will have been repaying the loan at the rate of the equivalent in Indian rupees of approximately Euro 0.60 per family member (or the equivalent in Indian rupees of Euro 3 per family of 5 per month) for 120 months. Their repayments are, however, made in rupees. Should the rupee through inflation or exchange measures have devalued against the Euro, the amount in rupees collected by the users will not be sufficient to pay the original loan back . This situation is beyond the control of the parties to the project, and in particular of the users.

A decision on how this risk is to be covered will therefore need to be made when the project is being financed.

Is the interest-free seed loan to be expressed in the local rupees or in Euros?

LOAN EXPRESSED IN RUPEES

If the loan is expressed in rupees, then the external bank (working together with the Central Bank of India) will need to obtain the acceptance of the lenders that the amount repaid, when reconverted into Euro, may be lower than the original Euro loan.

The following are four possibilities:

1) The lenders or their governments formally accept they are willing to run this risk and write off the eventual difference as a gift.

2) The lenders agree to extend repayment time until the total amount collected in the fund is sufficient to repay the whole loan expressed in Euros. This can lead to a "win-win" situation in that the amount available for recycled micro-loans would remain at a high level. In return for the extra monthly payments, users have more money to recycle in micro-loans than would otherwise have been the case.

3) The lenders require payment of the available funds on expiry, and that the difference be collected using the next following monthly payments, until such time as the original amount expressed in Euros is balanced. This solution is negative for users in that for a shorter or a longer period (depending on the inflation which has taken place) users will not be able to benefit from re-cycled micro-loans and on-going local development will slow down and could, in some cases, even stop.

4) The lenders require repayment of the available funds on expiry but reinvest any difference for a further cycle of ten years. This will reduce users' funds for renewing capital goods or extending services at the end of the second period of ten years, but will not negatively affect recycling of micro-loans for on-going local development under the project.

LOAN EXPRESSED IN EUROS

If the loan is to be expressed in Euros, will users' monthly repayments be indexed to the Euro? If so, how will the monthly rate expressing the amount payable in Euro be determined, and by whom? How will the users be advised?

If repayments are to be indexed to the Euro, the total amount collected by users over the ten year period may, when converted into Euro, still be (considerably) less than the total original amount in Euros. This is because the indexing of the local payments to the Euro is progressive over ten years while the exchange rate applicable on repayment of the loan after the ten years' loan period is the one applicable at the moment of the repayment. The difference would normally be less than where the loan is expressed in the local currency, but one of the four options mentioned above would have to be applied to it.


2.11 INSURANCE AND FORFEIT IN THE FORM OF GIFT IN CASE OF LOSS OR DAMAGE TO CAPITAL STRUCTURES

Long term political stability in India (Tamil Nadu State) is essential to the success of the project, especially during the period of the ten year interest-free seed loan. Without it ongoing integrated development cannot be guaranteed.

While capital structures installed within the framework of the project may, if rarely, be insurable against loss or damage by Act of God such as lightning, hurricanes, or earthquakes, it is not possible to insure them against loss or damage deriving from causes such as Act of Political and Military Authorities, civil war, commotion, rebellion, and strikes. Even if insurance against such risks were to be available the cost would be so high that it would constitute a major on-going financial leakage from the project area, which is just one of the major problems applications under the Model are designed to stop.

What happens in case of loss of or damage to the capital structures installed under the project Model before repayment after ten years of the interest-free seed loan must therefore be clearly addressed at the time the project application is being financed.

The beneficiaries of the project are by definition poor and the loss or damage in question derives from causes entirely beyond their control. To require these poor people to repay a loan after ten years for capital structures they have lost for reasons beyond their control is in profound contradiction with the short term and long term goals of the project. In some cases the lending organisations may have forms of insurance available to cover funds at risk in projects in developing countries. In such cases they would ensure, at their own cost and by way of gift, that funds for the project are insured by such Funds. Where, however, such insurance is not available, the lending organisations should accept that in the case of loss of or damage to project structures deriving from causes beyond the power and control of the users the interest free loan be converted into a gift so that users are freed from their contractual obligations.

Normally, at the time the (uninsured) loss of or damage to the capital structures occurs, users will have paid a part of the loan into the Local Cooperative Development Fund.

The project must clearly whether the money which has already been collected in the Cooperative Local Development Fund at the time the loss of or damage to the capital structures occurs:
a) Must be used immediately to reinstate the capital goods lost or damaged
b) Has to be repaid to the lenders at the end of the original ten years' interest free loan period.
c) Has to be repaid immediately
d) Will, subject to analysis of the current political situation, be integrated by a further loan to enable complete reinstatement of the capital structures so that the project application can make a re-start.


2.12 INFORMATION FLOW

The three main lines of information flow foreseen under the project are:

a) Transfer of information within project applications

- Vertical, from project coordinator (who would also liaise with external sources involved, such as education authorities, schools, health authorities, clinics) to well sangam level to tank sangam level to invidual user and return back up the line
- Horizontal, for instance within the LETS groups and between LETS groups, between tank sangams, and between well sangams
- Combination of both - through a project level radio station
- Project website mainly as a source for b) and for information sharing in general for (c) below

b) Local consultants, activity groups, and schools

-Through local consultants with small businesses set up under interest-free micro-loans under the project, who help local people choose crops to grow, instruct on agricultural methods, give professional advice on productivity questions etc
-Local translation bureaus set up under interest-free micro loans under the projects to put material into a form the local people can understand
-Activity groups working under the LETS systems with any of the parties in a), such as the Health Clubs foreseen, groups of actors etc
-Local schools, information and courses for children and, eventually, adults

c) Transfer of information from and to external sources

- Incoming through information shops set up as private businesses (as in b) " local consultants") under the project. These would have telephones, faxes, computers.
- Outgoing, through cultural and economic websites ( recent experiments in India), where individual interest groups make their cultural activities and their wares known to the outside world, either independently or through the information shops.

Communication and monitoring

Within each of the above specific sectors, rather complex interdisciplinary relationships can arise. Just to cite one typical example, to make the integrated sanitation system foreseen work, users need to be advised on the benefits of better hygiene (Health Clubs) then practise what they have learned and install their new toilet (and, eventually, water harvesting) systems. A system of cooperative inspection then needs to be put in place. A home inspection report has to be developed. Local women nominated by the tank sangams have to be trained to apply the report system and to advise and help users where they are doing something wrong. Women nominated by the well sangams have to be trained to monitor the work of the local inspectors. A woman nominated by the (unified) well sangams will have to check the work of the well sangam monitors. Information and experiences would need to be exchanged both vertically and horizontally under a).

The same users will at the same time need separate instruction on how best to recycle their urine, and later, their composted faeces. Basic recommendations will be developed under the projects for this, although single users, the local tank sangams, or the project coordinator could also obtain consultancy under b). Where the project supplies recommendations, cooperative structures similar to those described for hygiene would need to be developed to make sure they are applied properly.


2.13 RECYCLING OF FUNDS AND IMPORTATION OF CAPITAL GOODS

Purchases in formal money of capital goods for production purposes will normally need to be imported into India.

The first series of such purchases is usually made with the original loan funds. Since the original loan funds are made available in Euros, and converted into the local currency for the purposes of the project, their re-conversion where necessary from the local currency into the international currency should not pose a problem.

The amount of capital goods needed for local productivity increase under recycled micro-loans could, however, amount to several times (5 or 6 times or more) the amount of the original interest-free loan expressed in foreign currency.

A condition for the granting of an interest-free loan under the project is, normally, that the beneficiary be able initially to sell some of the goods or services in question outside the project area for formal money to enable him to repay the loan. The beneficiary therefore exports the goods or services outside the project area for rupees, but not necessarily outside the national borders. Since capital goods may often need to be imported into India, a situation of financial leakage of rupees occurs for the purpose of buying the foreign currency necessary for the purchase of new capital goods for production purposes. This financial leakage is not desirable but it may in part be offset by the increase of local production tending towards a reduction in the need for imported goods. The leakage can only be completely avoided where the project area succeeds with time to export directly outside national boundaries enough of its production to earn enough foreign currency to cover the costs of the imported goods. It is unlikely this be possible at least in the early phases of a project application. The Tamil Nadu government must therefore when it approves this project application accept that this (temporary) financial leakage is going to take place during the initial stages of the project. Its Finance Ministry must ensure flexibiility in granting leave to convert local formal money into the foreign currency necessary for the purchase of the capital goods. Failure of the Ministry to do so could in practice lead to serious delays in project execution. The more often the project funds are recycled the more rapidly the project area will develop. The Project Coordinator, on the other hand, is bound to endeavour to reduce the financial leakage of formal currency in question by purchasing capital equipment, where available, which has already been imported and is available on the local market.

The following schedule will produce a zero national import/export balance for the project during its execution and a long-term ongoing credit balance:
First two (executive) years : zero franchise
Third year, at least 35% of imported value exported
Fourth year, at least 50% of imported value exported
Fifth year, at least 75% of imported value exported
Sixth year, at least 100% of imported value exported
Seventh year, at least 125% of imported value exported
Eight and following years, at least 150% of imported value exported


2.14 AUDITING STRUCTURES

AUDITING STRUCTURES

The project is based on separation of powers between the controlling party (the NGO DBGDS) and the project coordinator nominated by the NGO to execute the project.

Financing parties have, if they wish, two structures enabling them to carry out on-going audits of the project works.

1. The project NGO fronts for the project and maintains on-going auditing powers to ensure correct project execution. The statute of the project NGO allows the financing parties to nominate executive auditors to the Board of Directors. The nominated auditors may be paid salaries by the financing parties. For practical purposes they should be resident in or near the project area. The NGO does not intervene directly in the execution of the project, as this is the responsibility of its nominee project coordinator.

2. Financing parties may also nominate an independent auditor to act the with project coordinator to co-sign payment authorisations and conduct an on-going audit of project out-go. The independent auditor answers to the Board of the NGO, which includes executive audit nominees of the financing parties. His or her salary is paid by the financing parties. The independent auditor may not intervene in the running of the project itself. For practical purposes the independent auditor must be resident in the project area.

To avoid conflict of interest, neither the project coordinator nor the independent auditor may be a member of the NGO. They both report, independently of each other, to the NGO.


3. Planned works and results

3.1 Hygiene education structures

Voluntary Community Health Clubs are set up within the project area. The members of each Health Club, which can include men, follow a course normally lasting at least six months. During the course, hygiene-related topics are discussed under the leadership of a specially trained Health Worker.

The structures, rules and administrative aspects of the Health Clubs will be established during one or more Organisational Workshops, during which the Health workers will also receive due training.

For some indicative information on the courses, refer to Schedule 7. This material is subject to adaptation according to the preferences expressed by the Workshop participants.

BASIC COURSE FOR HEALTH CLUBS

The Health Clubs will continue to meet regularly after the course has finished. Their role is fundamental to the project. They serve as a forum for identifying community needs, assisting with project planning and implementation, and developing the sense of unity and cooperation on which the success of the project depends.

A system will be set up to provide on-going inspection of the individual sanitation and water supply systems by local Health workers.

Water quality will be systematically monitored by a local clinic or hospital using testing equipment supplied under the project.

Hygiene education courses may, where required, be established in the schools in the project area. They will be supported and approved by the local Health and Education authorities. They will be applied during normal schools hours under the supervision of the teachers' commissions.

Participation at the workshops will be mixed-caste and include a majority of Dalits.

3.2 Sanitation facilities

For a diagram of the proposed waste disposal system see:

DRAWING SHOWING PROPOSED WASTE DISPOSAL STRUCTURES.
DRAWING OF COMPOSTING TOILET TANK MADE FROM GYPSUM COMPOSITES

These are based on the separation of urine, faeces, and grey water.

In urban areas, urine, grey water and fertiliser can be used in vertical gardens made from Gypsum composites  blocks under the LETS systems.

The number of users for each toilet unit will be decided during phase 2 of the project based on users' preferences and customs in accordance with the decisions reached during the organisation workshops to be held. Units could be for an individual or a group of related families. In public areas such as market places collective sanitation facilities will be set up under the local money systems as private enterprises, and operated along the general lines of the Sulabh movement. 

A typical private unit will comprise a small toilet building containing three Gypsum composites tanks. One tank will be used for urine. The other two tanks will be used as aerobic composting toilets. Building support structures, san-plats for urinals and toilet seats will also be supplied by the local Gypsum composites production units. The toilet structures will be built by local builders or cooperative groups and paid for using the LETS local currencies. Use of improved evaporation systems could eliminate one of the composting toilets. For health reasons we prefer the twin tank method.

Almost the whole sanitation project can be done under local exchange trading (LETS) systems, with nearly 100% local value added.

The toilets will be supplied with appropriate washing and cleaning means for personal hygiene.

A small quantity of locally available lime, ash, sawdust or similar would be added to the urine tank once or twice a day and to the faeces after use. The contents of the urine tank can be emptied at any time. A mixture containing one part urine and ten parts of water can be safely used for watering plants. This high quality product has been known to more than double the productivity of a household garde. An average family with 5 members can produce about 25m3 of this fertiliser per year.

Users not wishing to dispose of the urine themselves will hire local operators to do it for them under the local LETS currency systems. The development using LETS currencies of a collection system may be needed in poor urban areas where users have no gardens or are unable to dispose of their urine as may be the case with Dalit families. Vertical gardens will be introduced to give Dalit families a chance to recycle their own wastes and produce part of their own food requirements.  

With the double composting dry toilet system, one properly aerated toilet tank is used until it is more or less full. It is then sealed and allowed to compost for at least 9-12 months while the second toilet tank is being used. The contents need to be moved from time to time. During that time, the compost in the sealed tank reduces to about one wheelbarrow full of soil per adult person per year. After 9-12 months composting, the soil can be safely and profitably used as soil conditioner.

Users not able to dispose of the soil conditioner will hire local operators to do so under the local LETS currency systems.

Organic material other than urine and faeces will be composted in simple compost boxes built and supplied under the local LETS currency systems. Alternatively it can ussed for animals and/or collected under the local LETS currency waste recycling structures.

In rural project areas, grey household water from the kitchen and from household cleaning can be collected in an appropriate closed container and spread on the family vegetable plot once a day, avoiding the formation of open or stagnant pools and concentrations of water. It can also be used to dilute urine. Users not able to dispose of their grey water will hire local operators to do so under the local LETS currency systems.

In urban areas, grey water may need to be regularly collected, possibly together with urine, and taken to the countryside nearby where it can be recycled. This work would be done under the local LETS currency systems.

Non-organic solid waste products will be recycled in recycling centres operating under the local currency (LETS) systems, creating more local added value. In larger communities the centres may be specialised to some extent. Collection charges will depend on the kind of material being recycled. Environmentally harmful materials will be charged for at a higher rate than other materials. Special waste from clinics will be addressed separately.

Appropriate sanitation services where needed for schools and clinics in the project area will be included in the project.

Participation at the workshops will be mixed-caste and include a majority of Dalits.

Useful references for further information on dry sanitation are:
a)Winblad Uno et al, "Ecological Sanitation", SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency), Stockholm 1998. ISBN 91 586 76 12 0
b)Del Porto David & Steinfeld Carol, "The composting toilet system book", CEPP (Centre for Ecological Pollution Prevention), Concord Massachusetts 1999. ISBN 0-9666783-0-3
c)Sawyer Ron (editor), "Closing the Loop - Ecological sanitation for food security", UNDP-SIDA, Mexico 2000 ISBN 91-586-8935-4

3.3 Local Gypsum composites production facilities

The project requires the supply of many water tanks, water containers, well-linings, san-plats, toilet seats, and support structures. Many of these are traditionally made from concrete, using materials that have to be paid for in formal currency and are usually not available locally. Concrete and cement are environmentally unfriendly and are difficult to dispose of after use. Concrete water tanks can cost up to Euro 4000 per tank. Concrete products are also subject to production faults and cannot always be repaired when damage damaged. They are heavy and difficult to transport.

A practical alternative to concrete, is to use a new-age product like Gypsum composites. Gypsum composites production units can be established wherever there are local deposits of cheap gypsum (CaSO4 + water) or anhydrite (CaSO4 + 1/2 water) which are very common, occurring naturally in most parts of the world. They can be used to make cheap, ecological, hygienic tanks, well-linings, toilets and other products. Gypsum composites is a state-of-the-art technology originating in the Netherlands. It can easily be transferred to India. The Gypsum composites  production units can make a major contribution to the regional economy after the project has been completed as well as manufacturing the products needed for the project itself.

Gypsum composites production units are permanent industrial assets. They will be used to make various load-bearing structures and other building materials. Gypsum composites  can even be used to weather-proof the mud walls of locally built houses and as a substitute for construction timber, reducing de-forestation. They can be used to make roofing and flooring tiles and seal thatched traditional roofs.

Gypsum composites  will also be used to make high efficiency stoves. The stoves can stand temperatures of up to 500 degrees C. They will recycle heat from smoke circulated around the pot. The stoves can be safely carried by hand with boiling water in the pot and fire in the stove. Although they will work with any sort of fuel, mini-briquettes made from bio-mass will be produced locally under the project.

Gypsum composites  will also be used to make solar cookers under the LETS systems in applications where daytime cooking is not in contrast with local customs.

The modest cost of Gypsum composites  production units will be funded within the project by interest-free green loans repayable over a period of 4 years. The initial casting moulds for Gypsum composites  products can cost several thousand Euros. These costs will restrict the initial range of products any single production unit can make. The top priority will be to service the needs of the project itslef. Additional copies of the initial moulds are, however, very cheap to make.

The entire system for the production of items in Gypsum composites from cheap gypsum or anhydrite, the management of the deposits of raw materials, the construction of the factories, the production and installation on the items manufactured will be organised during a series of Moraisian workshops for which a separate allowance has been made in the budget.

While the workshops will work out the details, it is foreseeable that the Gypsum composites production be highly labour intensive calling for minimum capital outlay. The products can be made manually without the need for any machinery, with a professional finish which can reach the quality of polished marble or ceramics..

Refer to Schedule 6 for more information on the Gypsum composites   process:
NOTES
ON GYPSUM COMPOSITES

 for a general description of the Gypsum composites technology.
PREPARATION OF GYPSUM COMPOSITES PRODUCTS for some information and an example of a more advanced application.

Participation at the Gypsum composites factory unit workshops will be mixed-caste and is expected to include a majority of Dalits.

3.4 Water supply structures

For a diagram of the water supply structures refer to:

DRAWING OF WATER SUPPLY STRUCTURES  

The governments of India and Tamil Nadu have made a major investment in organised drinking water supply systems in the Sanarpatty project area. These on-going efforts are appreciated by the people in the project area. This project will further extend the existing local drinking water facilities as the local people attach top priority to a secure and good quality water supply, with proper drinking water coverage also for the Dalits.

Large diameter wells will be dug and boreholes drilled using local labour, construction methods and materials supplied under the local LETS systems.

About 6-9 solar pumps (see Schedule 4 for a  full description of one recommended unit) will be installed in each borehole. Each of the pumps will supply water to a dedicated water tank serving a local community. The well is the hub of the supply system. The water pipelines radiating from it are its spokes.

Schools will each receive one dedicated tank. Clinics, where necessary, will for further safety be served by two tanks each with its own pump.

Each borehole will be equipped with back-up hand-pumps (see Schedule 5 for a complete description of an appropriate hand-pump option).The hand-pumps will provide water during unusually long periods of bad weather in support of presently available drinking water structures..

Where culturally appropriate, there will be a communal washing area near each well so that women used to doing their washing in groups can continue to do so. The backup hand-pumps may also be used to service the washing areas and in cases of emergency.

The water supply is based on an additional water consumption of 25 litres per person per day. Since solar energy is to be used to pump the water, bad weather must be taken into account. For that reason, the tanks need to have a capacity for three days' use. Each tank will supply about 200 people. The capacity required to give 25 litres per day to 200 people for three days is 15m3, the planned size of the tanks.

Where the water table is not deep, hand-dug wells instead of drilled boreholes will be prepared.

According to the wishes of the people in each tank Sangam and/or well-Sangam area, existing water supply structures can be upgraded to the requirements of this project and possession in them handed over to the tank Sangams and well Sangams who would then be responsible for their maintenance and administration. The upgrading and passage of ownership do not constitute rights. They must be negotiated with the owners of the existing structures and take place with the acceptance of the people currently using them.

3.5 Institutional developments

DRAWING OF STRUCTURES.
CASH FLOW DIAGRAM
HOW THE ORIGINAL SEED LOAN MONEY IS USED
THE INTEREST-FREE LOAN CYCLE

Permanent on-going procedures to maintain and administer the system will be worked out with the users themselves during Organization Workshops to be run for this purpose, with the involvement of Terry Manning as consultant, the project coordinator, the tanks and wells Sangams, maintenance and inspection staff, and the local private bank administering the micro-credit loans.

The purpose is to create a "maintenance culture".

Institutional structures to be created include the Health Clubs, the local money systems, the Gypsum composites factories, systems for installation and maintenance of the drinking water supply system, waste recycling structures, structures for the production of bio-mass, the local banking and micro-credits system, the tank and well Sangams, not to forget the local radio station.

Multiple re-cycled interest-free micro-credits will provide formal money needed to develop local production capacity. The rest of the development will be done with the LETS systems.

The capital available for re-cycling in the form of micro-credits is made of:
a) Part of the initial seed money until it is needed for the project.
b) Seed loan repayments.
c) Micro-credit repayments.
d) The long term maintenance fund.
e) The system capital replacement fund which will be built up after the ten years' seed loan has been fully repaid.

For instance, a woman may need a sewing machine to be able to make clothes. She will need "formal" currency to buy the sewing machine. That money will be available in the form of an interest-free micro credit. She will sell outside the local LETS system some of the clothes she makes to earn the "formal" money she needs to repay her loan. The rest of the clothes can be sold within the local currency LETS system.

As she repays her loan, the repaid capital can be loaned again for another interest free micro-credit project, so the available seed money repeatedly re-circulates within the local economy.

Establishing local exchange trading (LETS) systems to overcome the chronic lack of "formal" money in the Sanarpatty Division is fundamental to the project. LETS systems create local currency units to exchange goods and services. They eliminate common complaints concerning the operation of development projects such as:

"There's no money to pay people to write out the water bills"
"There's no money to collect the monthly contributions"
"The people can't afford san-plats for their toilets"

Very often, all that is needed is a way to transfer goods and services within the community without having to use formal money.

We propose to make participation in the LETS systems compulsory for all people in the project area of working age because everybody will benefit from and participate in some of the community level initiatives undertaken within the project. For instance, PV lighting for study will be financed at local tank Sangam level and its costs written off against the users in that tank area only. Others, such as tree-planting or road building may benefit the whole community and every member will be charged for his share. Compulsory membership is also needed where common assets are being used or sold or when goods and services for the project have to be supplied in the local currencies.

In the case of Tamil Nadu and the Sanarpatty project area the minimum school leaving age is set at 12 years. As economic activity and the general quality of life in the project area increase, it is hoped to gradually bring this minimum school-leaving age up to 16. To achieve tis result the full cooperation of the Tamil Nadu Education Department will be required.

Nearly all LETS transactions are open to normal "free market" negotiation between the parties.

Many goods and services like those provided by the Community Health Clubs, and those needed to build the sanitation and water supply services can be paid for using the LETS systems. We have included some formal currency estimates for these goods and services so that enough micro-credit loan money is available to start developing local production.

For more information on the nature and organisation of LETS systems, refer to Schedule 8.

There will be just one LETS system set up, based in the village of Kambilliampatti.

3.6 PV lighting, television and refrigeration

A PV lighting system for study can be installed in each tank area once a study area has been built there using the local LETS currency. The cost of the study area would be equally debited to all LETS members in the tank area. These lighting systems will be independent of the availability of electricity.

Enough money has been set aside in phase 4 of the project to cover 267 PV lighting systems.

The purchase of a PV operated TV set for each study area is subject to discussion and has been listed "pro-memorium" in the budget despite the fact that sufficient educational material is available both in Tamil and in English. This is because the TV set would need to be safely housed in a weather-proof environment and maintenance and security problems have to be solved by the tank sangams case by case. The cost of the TV sets, if purchased for study purposes, will be deducted from the project reserves.

We have also listed the purchase of PV lighting and refrigeration for clinics inside the project area "pro-memorium" in the budget pending complete information on the necessity, as it is understood most clinics are already grid connected. Willingness to share the onus of payment will have to be discussed from case to case and consents to transfer of ownership to the local tank Sangams would have to be obtained.

Some PV lighting and television facilities for evening classes in schools have also been included in the budget. This has been set at two sets per school pending more information on the individual schools and their real needs with respect to evening classes.

3.7 Domestic solar home systems

Home lighting in the project area is usually fuelled by kerosene lamps the average cost of which is about Euro 6 per family per month. Kerosene costs about Euro 0.20 per litre, and an average family uses about 30 litres per month. This outgo constitutes a serious financial leakage from the project area which should be stopped. Some families may be able to finance the purchase of solar home systems through savings effected on the costs of kerosene and, for instance, batteries consumed for radios. The project will set up a separate cooperative interest-free fund under which solar home systems can be installed and more efficient radios purchased within interest-free self-terminating consumer structures set up at tank sangam level.

The tank Sangams will decide the social priorities for the gradual distribution of these systems. They may for instance decide priorities by drawing lots. The seed fund is purely to set an example, and cannot supply more than 150-200 systems to launch the system. All funds must come from the cooperative contributions made by the users participating.

The speed of the distribution of the systems will depend on the time required to reimburse the credits received by each family. A family accustomed to paying up to Euro 10 a month for lighting and batteries will be able to repay a system from savings within about 4 years. A poorer family would need more time. Each tank sangam will decide what even the poorest families can afford to pay into its cooperative solar home system fund. The new systems will probably be distributed by lot each time there is enough money in the fund to buy one. 

Distribution of solar home systems is expected to commence in the last, phase 4, of the project. Various activities currently cause of financial leakage from the project area will then be taking place under the local money (LETS) system, and it is conceivable that (some) users have more formal money available than before. They can therefore form buying cooperatives for solar home systems at tank Sangam level, whereby each family contributes an amount (eg Euro5) each month into its cooperative lighting fund. This would allow one family out of 20 to install a system each 16 weeks. This would mean that each family would have a solar home system installed within about 6 years after the start of the cooperative and the elimination of financial leakage from the project area due to lighting and radios within 6-7 years.

Financial leakage through the use of inefficient battery-driven radios could be stopped by the use of high efficiency radios and/or mechanical wind-up radios. It should be possible to recover the cost of the new radios through savings on batteries within two years.

3.8 Payments and on-going costs

The following drawings and graphs form an integral part of this project proposal.

GRAPH SHOWING DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO-LOANS.
THE INTEREST-FREE LOAN CYCLE.
HOW THE ORIGINAL SEED LOAN MONEY IS USED.
TYPICAL PROJECT EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER (Items 1-21 of the budget)
TYPICAL PROJECT EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER (Items 22-58 of the budget)
TOTAL EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE FIRST QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE SECOND QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE THIRD QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE FOURTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE FIFTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE SIXTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE SEVENTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE EIGHTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE NINTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE TENTH QUARTER

The people of the Sanarpatty Block the Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu India are poor and plagued by a low quality of life. The initial seed capital will therefore come from donors in the form of an interest free loan repayable over a period of ten years.

The users will pay a monthly fee to be decided during phase 2 of the project. It is expected to be the equivalent in Indian rupees approximately Euro 0.60 per family member, or the equivalent in Indian rupees of Euro 3 per month for a family of five. This sum will be used:

- to repay the loan itself. This money will be re-cycled interest-free for use as micro-credits to develop local production capacity.

- to pay on-going administration and maintenance costs. This money pays the monthly fees of the project coordinator and the salaries and transport costs of maintenance and inspection personnel and of the tank Sangams.

- to set up reserves for long term maintenance. These funds will also be re-cycled for micro-credits but managed so that the capital is available when it is needed.

Once the original seed money has been repaid, the monthly payments will create a large fund for use to extend the basic services provided under this project.

The whole cost of the Gypsum composites production units will be covered by interest-free loans repayable over 4 years. This capital can also be re-cycled as it is repaid.

There will be large savings in the traditional cost of fuel for cooking. The savings will come from using high efficiency Gypsum composites  stoves and local production of bio-mass for fuel.

Provision of drinking water under the project will help avoid health hazards, improve productivity, and avoid the need to purchase expensive water from vendors in the larger communities.

Waste re-cycling under the project will produce savings by creating value added from resources currently unused and because payments for collection and handling of the waste will be kept inside the local economy.

 

 

 

 

 

4. Work Plan

4.1 First, initial, research phase

Relevant details have been collected and a budget developed. Contacts have been made with potential suppliers and the basic project technologies selected. The project coordinator has contacted the local people to discuss their wishes and willingness and ability to meet any net financial commitments under the project after taking into account direct savings.

Users have accepted the five conditions precedent to the success of self-financing development projects of the type here presented:

4.1.1 Acceptation of Health Clubs. These do not only serve the purposes of offering basic hygiene education courses. They also serve as a platform for women, so that they can organise themselves and participate and play an important role in the various structures foreseen. The health clubs therefore constitute a means of addressing the so-called "gender problem".

4.1.2 Willingness to pay the equivalent in Indian rupees equivalent to at least Euro 0.60 per family member (or the equivalent in Indian rupees of at least Euro 3 per month per family of 5) into the Sanarpatty Cooperative Development Fund. This payment covers the entire package of basic services foreseen including hygiene education, additional drinking water supply, sanitation, waste removal, high efficiency stoves and fuel for them, and lighting for study purposes.

4.1.3 Acceptance of the use of local exchange trading (LETS) systems, which enable goods and services originating in the project area to be exchanged without the need for formal money.

4.1.4 Acceptance of the GYPSUM COMPOSITES process which enables most of the items required for local development to be made locally with 100% local value added within the framework of the local LETS systems in local low cost labour intensive production units.

4.1.5 Acceptance of industrial quality dry composting toilet systems with the separation of urine and excreta. Aspects relating to the form, the colour, the finish, privacy and similar will all be discussed with and decided by the users. The dry toilet systems foreseen enable waste to be recycled at household level so that problems connected with the pollution of surface and ground water can be addressed at local level without the need for major investments.

The key project sites including clinics and schools are shown on the map of the project area and on the settlement schedules, all of which are included in Schedule 3.

There is no budget included for the work during this first phase which has been carried out free of charge.

4.2 Second phase lasting about 9 months

The following graphs are available on the CD supplied with the project summary or can be downloaded from internet site www.flowman.nl or transmitted as attachments to an e-mail message on request.

 

GRAPH SHOWING DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO-LOANS.
THE INTEREST-FREE LOAN CYCLE.
HOW THE ORIGINAL SEED LOAN MONEY IS USED.
TYPICAL PROJECT EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER (Items 1-21 of the budget)
TYPICAL PROJECT EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER (Items 22-58 of the budget)
TOTAL EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE FIRST QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE SECOND QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE THIRD QUARTER

 

This is the most critical phase during which the basic structures necessary for the operation of the entire system are set up by way of a series of organizational workshops following the method introduced by the Brazilian sociologist Clodomir Santos de Morais.

Refer to Schedule 2 for some material and a bibliography on Organisational Workshops.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
ORGANIZATION WORKSHOPS.

The sequential order of the workshops is very important. The first workshops are the ones setting up the Health Clubs, which offer women a platform from which they can organise themselves. After that, the tanks Sangams, which are the heart of the system, can be established. The third structure is the local money LETS systems, followed by the micro-credit system, the Gypsum composites factories, the water supply system, the recycling system and the local radio station.

The caste-integration aspects of the capacitation workshops must be taken carefully into account. Participants in the workshops will come from various castes, with a high level of participation of Dalits, who in many cases will be in the majority.

4.2.0 PAYMENT OF THE PROJECT FUNDS

A plan for the effective payment of the project funds to the local NGO is prepared.

Since the Sanarpatty Cooperative Local Development bank will be instituted later on, funds will have to be paid into a temporary account in the name of the District Bhoodhan Gramadhan Development Sangh, in a separate account with the Central Bank of India in Kambiliampatty and transferred to the Sanarpatty Cooperative Local Development Bank later on..

4.2.1 HEALTH CLUBS AND HYGIENE EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

4.2.1.1 Health clubs

The Health Clubs must form a socially acceptable platform to get users, and especially women, to work together as this is the base of the project. They will create a forum for women, so that they can identify the needs of the community and participate fully in the planning and execution of the structures to be set up.  This is of special importance for Dalit women, whose rights and welfare were the basis of the original contacts made by District Bhoodhan Gramadhan Development Sangh with Terry Manning

The Moraisian workshop will be held in Kambiliampatty during which draft Health Clubs rules will be prepared and discussed with the local people so the community fully "owns" the project. The Health Clubs will be a socially acceptable method of getting people used to working together, the cornerstone for a successful project. Local Health Workers will be trained to lead Health Club discussions. Material for the Health Clubs and for hygiene education courses in schools will be adapted, preferably using local artists. Preference will be given to the use of traditional local art styles.

Indicative participation 

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
The Zimbabwe AHEAD Consultant
Representative of the ONG
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
20 qualified instructors indicated by the Ministry of Health to guide the Health Club lessons
300 female initiative takers at the level of the future Tank Sangams

Duration of the workshop: about three weeks.

The Workshops will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) A system coordination structure for coordination:
- with the project coordinator
- amongst the main project areas
- with the Health ministry
- amongst the Health Ministry trainers and the women locally responsible
- the statues and rules for the running of the clubs

b) A materials structure
- discussion with potential members of the Health Groups
- definition of the content of the courses according to local requirements
- adaptation of the material according to local customs (illustrations, languages etc)
- actual physical preparation of the course
- distribution of the material

c) A methodological structure
- how to use the material
- the role of the Health Ministry specialists
- the role of the local Health Club leaders
- practical exercises
- how to call meetings and lead the first lessons
- continuation of the Health Clubs after the termination of the courses

d) A communications structure
- vertical, at project level (coordinator, Health Clubs leaders, Health ministry teachers)
- horizontal, amongst local Health Club leaders, (future) radio programme

e) A structure at local Tank Sangam level

- Payment of the local Health Club leader once the local money systems have been formed 

- Relationship between the local Health Club leader and the (future) Tank Sangam 

- Relationship between the local Health Club leader and the Health ministry teacher responsible for the area 

- Discussion with persons (women) interested in the (future) local Tank Sangam 

- Registration of Health Club members

- Practical organisation of the lessons and later group meetings

BASIC INDICATIVE COURSE FOR HEALTH CLUBS

4.2.1.2 Hygiene Education in the Schools

BASIC INDICATIVE COURSE FOR SCHOOLS

Local schools in the project area include basic hygiene education principles in their standard curriculum. It is however important that systematic on-going hygiene education courses be made available to the children in the project area.

A Moraisian workshop will be held during which Local Health Workers will be trained to lead hygiene education courses in the schools. Material for the courses in schools will be adapted, preferably using local artists. Preference will be given to the use of traditional local art styles.

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
The Zimbabwe AHEAD Consultant
Representative of the ONG
Representative of the Health Ministry
Representative of the Education Ministry
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
20 qualified instructors indicated by the Ministry of Health to guide the lessons
50 teachers from the schools

Duration of the workshop: about three weeks.

The Workshop will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) A system coordination structure for coordination: 

- with the project coordinator- with the Health ministry
- with the Education ministry
- amongst the Health Ministry trainers and the teachers' Sangamsb) A materials structure
- discussion of course content according to the different levels of the pupils
- definition of the content of the courses according to age groups (illustrations, language etc)
- adaptation of the material according to local customs (illustrations, languages etc)
- actual physical preparation of the course
- distribution of the material

c) A methodological structure
- how to use the material
- the role of the Health Ministry specialists
- the role of the teachers
- planning the courses
- continuity

d) A communications structure
- vertical, at project level (coordinator, Health ministry specialists, teachers' Sangams)
- horizontal, amongst the teachers' Sangams and the families, (future) radio programme

e) Formalities
- Payment in local LETS currencies of the teachers involved.

4.2.2 LOCAL SOCIAL STRUCTURES

A Moraisian workshop will be held in Kambiliampatty to set up the tank sangams. The Tank Sangams form the basic project structure and the workshop may involve up to 1500 people.

Indicative participation 

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
Consultant Terry Manning
Representative of the ONG
Representative of the Finance Ministry
Representative of the Rural Development ministry
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
1300 (mostly female) persons interested in participating with responsibility for the management of projects structures as members of the Tank Sangams. About 35% of these people might be indicated by the local panchyats, 65% by the local Health Clubs which will already have been set up.

Duration of the workshop: about four weeks.

The Workshop will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) Definition of the social form of the tank Sangams and the well Sangams
- statutes
- rules
- financial aspects
- definition of the tasks

b) Organisation
- meetings
- use of tanks and well areas

c) Coordination
- with project coordinator
- (future) local SEL-LETS system
- between local tank Sangams and the well Sangam
- with local schools
- with local clinics/hospitals
- with (future) recycling systems
- with (future) micro-credit structures

d) A communications structure
- vertical, at project level (coordinator)
- horizontal, with the +/- 40 local families

e) Individual initiatives

- Payment of the local Health Club leaders once the local money systems have been formed - Relationship between the local Health Club leader and the (future) Tank Sangam - Relationship between the local Health Club leader and the Health ministry teacher responsible for the area - Discussion with persons (women) interested in the (future) local Tank Sangam - Registration of Health Club members - Practical organisation of the lessons and later group meetings

4.2.3 THE LETS LOCAL MONEY SYSTEMS

For detailed information on LETS systems refer to:

Appendix 8 : LETS systems.

A Moraisian workshop will be held in Kambiliampatti, to set up the local money LETS system.

Participating parties:

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
Consultant Terry Manning
2 representatives of the ONG
Representative of the Finance Ministry
Representative of the Rural Development ministry
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
100 persons, indicated by the well commissions, who will have indicated their interest in registering transactions
800 persons (men and women) indicated by the Tank Sangams interested in taking responsibility for the management of the LETS systems at tank Sangam level.

Duration of the workshop: about six weeks.

The Workshop will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) Definition of the social form of the LETS structures
- statutes
- rules
- professional and administrative structures
- financial aspects
- relationships with other non-formal local money systems

b) Structure for the registration of transactions
- physical working space (offices)
- adaptation of environments against weather and dust
- safety and back-up procedures to protect information
- purchase of computers, printers, equipment for registration of members et electrical connections eventually using PV
- distribution of physical structures: LETS boxes, notice boards
- preparation of cheques or other instruments of exchange to be used
- publication of the services available within the system

c) Coordination with users
- preparatory meetings with users at tank Sangam level
- presentation of the local coordinator
- registration of members
- distribution of cheques or other instruments of exchange
- starting transactions

d) A communications structure
- vertical, at project level (project coordinator, transaction registrars, those responsible at tank Sangam level, users)
- horizontal, with the various persons responsible at the same level (amongst transaction registrars, amongst tank Sangam level operators)
- horizontal, amongst local money systems
- commercial, radio, website

4.2.4 MICRO CREDIT SYSTEM STRUCTURES

CHART ILLUSTRATING MICRO-LOANS SCHEME
HOW THE ORIGINAL SEED LOAN MONEY IS USED
THE INTEREST-FREE LOAN CYCLE

The Sanarpatty Cooperative Local Development Bank will manage formal currency funds necessary for running the project, acting on instructions of the project coordinator given on receipt of the indications received from those responsible at tank Sangam level. The funds do not belong to the bank, which will intervene only in the practical management and transfer of the funds. The decisions are taken by the users' structures set up under the project. The funds formally belong to the users until the expiry of the 10 years' interest-free credit term. The interests of the financing parties are protected by their representatives nominated to the board of the ONG, who will be invited to participate in the workshop.

The services of the bank will be paid in local LETS monies at a fixed rate per transaction to be set during the workshop. The bank can then use its LETS credits to purchase goods and services inside the project area and sell them for formal money outside the project area.

One Moraisian workshop will be held to prepare the Bank structures.

Indicative participation:

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
Consultant Terry Manning
2 Representatives of the ONG acting on behalf of the financing parties
Representative of the Finance Ministry
Representative of the Rural Development ministry
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
At least 6 qualified persons, 3 indicated by the ONG and 3 by the project coordinator
350 persons, indicated by the tank Sangams, interested in participating with responsibility for credit arrangements at tank Sangam level.

Duration of the workshop: about six weeks.

The Workshop will be expected to produce the following structures: 4.2.4.1 The cooperative local development bank:

a) Definition of the social form
- statutes
- rules
- professional and administrative structures
- financial aspects
- relations with the LETS local money systems

b) Physical aspects
- land
- office
- safety
- communications

c) Financial aspects. Definition of initiatives at each structural level. How much money is to be distributed at the tank commission, at the well commission and at the general project levels?

- funding of initiatives at general project level (recycling structures,important productivity initiatives, public works)
- funding of initiatives at intermediate, well commission, level
- funding of initiatives at local tank Sangam level
- funding of socially based initiatives (clubs, interest groups etc)
- traditional banking activities

4.2.4.2 Organisation of operations:

a) Central structure.

b) De-centralised structure.
- Preparation operators
- Meetings at tank Sangam level.

c) Coordination
- With LETS structures
- With tank Sangams
- With project coordinator.

d) Financing of specific projects
- Relations with financiers.

e) Communications structure
-Vertical, at project level (project coordinator, transactions operators, tank Sangam level operators, end users)
Commercial, radio, website.

4.2.5 GYPSUM COMPOSITES PRODUCTION UNITS

For information on the Gypsum composites process refer to:

NOTES ON GYPSUM COMPOSITES:General description of the Gypsum composites technology.
PREPARATION OF GYPSUM COMPOSITES PRODUCTS: More information and an example of a more advanced application.

Three Moraisian organisational workshops will be held, one for each production unit planned. Localities to be decided in accordance with the local availability of gypsum or anhydrite or the need to import it into the project area. Indicatively one might be located in the Kambiliampatti panchyat union, one in the Chenkurchi panchayat union, and one in Kottai panchyat union.

Indicative participation (all workshops together):

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
Consultant EOS Consult
At least one representative of the NGO
Representative of the Ministry of Health
Representative of the Rural Development ministry
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
150 persons (men and women), indicated during meetings held at Tank Sangam level, interested in participating in the activities of the factories. Where opportune, according to local political structures and traditions, up to 25% of the people could be indicated by the local chiefs.

Duration of each workshop: about six weeks.

The Workshops will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) Definition of the social form of the production units
- statutes
- rules
- professional and administrative structures
- financial aspects
- relationship with the local LETS systems

b) A structure for the supply of materials
- geological research for gypsum and/or anhydrite deposits
- locations of gypsum/anhydrite quarries, permits
- activities preparatory to exploitation
- logistics
- coordination of materials depots with the factories.

c) Definition of the items to be made (tanks, toilets, stoves, solar cookers etc)
- coordination with the other production units (specialisation)
- contacts with families
- definition of requirements : articles and specifications
- definition of requirements : design, productive capacity
- definition of the necessary procedures
- preparation of moulds
- tests
- decision on priorities to be given to the various items.

d) A structure for the factories
- land and necessary structures
- design of factories
- construction of factories
- purchase of necessary equipment.

e) A production structure
- organisation of the production
- commercial organisation.

f) A structure for the installation of the items produced
- Relationship factory-installers
- Preparation of the installers
- Installation
- Siting of boreholes/wells
- After sales backup and service.

g) A structure for communications
- Vertical, at project level (project coordinator, factory manager, factory Sangams, installers, end users)
- Horizontal, between production units
- With the local money LETS systems
- Commercial, radio, website.

4.2.6 THE RECYCLING STRUCTURES.

A special fund is included in the budget to cover the costs of setting up the recycling structures, which have priority. The funds will be repaid by the beneficiaries in the same way as those made available to the Gypsum composites factories. They will take the form of interest-free credits repayable according to the real possibilities of those involved as decided during the organisational workshops during which the structures are set up. The repayments will be financed by sale of materials such as fertilisers and compost outside the project area and by the "exportation" of solid non-organic waste which are not recyclable within the project area itself. For an illustration of a possible general structure for the integrated recycling of waste in project areas refer to:

DRAWING OF WASTE DISPOSAL STRUCTURES.

The work of the recycling structures will be carried out within the local money LETS systems already set up. One of the more interesting features of LETS systems is that, in contrast with what happens in the western monetised economies, work considered as "dirty" and/or "heavy" is usually better paid than "clean" and/or "light" work as the rates charged will normally be related to the perceived value of an hour's work in the foreseeable normal working situation.

One Moraisian workshop will be held.

Indicative participation:

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
Consultant Terry Manning
At least one representative of the ONG
Representative of the Finance Ministry
Representative of the Health Ministry
Representative of the Rural Development ministry
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
150 persons (male and female)indicated by the tank Sangams, interested in participating.

Duration of the workshop: about six weeks.

The Workshop will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) Definition of the social form of the structures

- statutes
- rules
- professional and administrative structures
- financial aspects including relations with the Micro-credit institution
- relations with the local money LETS systems.

b) Analysis of requirements.

c) A structure for the recycling centres

- Definition of the land requirements and the physical structures necessary
- formalities and permits
- design of the centres
- construction of the centres
- purchase of the necessary equipment.

d) A structure for the collection/deposition of waste

- urine
- composted excreta
- waste water
- other organic waste
- non organic solids
- special industrial wastes
- medical wastes
- who will do what
- definition of individual zones
- definition of specialisations.

e) A commercial structures

- definition of the tariffs applicable to the various types of material
- distribution of urine and composted excreta
- direct recycling of certain materials
- contacts for the exportation of materials not recyclable locally.

f) A monitoring structure
- sanitary conditions
- ecological conditions
- safety conditions.

g) A communications structure:

- vertical, at project level (coordinator, centre managers, collection structures, end users)
- horizontal, between centres
- relations with local money LETS systems
- commercial, radio, website.

4.2.7 STRUCTURES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIO-MASSE FOR STOVES.

For a typical possible high efficiency stove design refer to:

DRAWING OF TYPICAL HIGH EFFICIENCY GYPSUM COMPOSITES STOVE

The structures foreseen are for the production of mini-briquettes for the stoves to be made by the Gypsum composites production units and for the production of bio-masse to make the mini-briquettes.

One Moraisian workshop will be held.

Indicative participation:

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
Consultant Terry Manning
Consultant EOS advises
At least one representative of the ONG
Representative of the Health Ministry
Representative of the Rural Development ministry
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
50 persons indicated by the tank Sangams interested in the production of mini-briquettes
150 persons indicated by the tank Sangams, interested in producing bio-masse for the mini-briquettes.

Duration of the workshop: about four weeks.

The Workshop will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) A coordination structure
- definition of the social form
- statutes
- rules
- professional and administrative structures
- financial aspects including payments
- relations with the local money LETS systems

b) Analysis of requirements
- detailed analysis of the present systems
- demand in the project area
- demand outside the project area

c) Analysis of the bio-masse resources available

d) Definition of the recipes (mixtures) socially acceptable

e) Creation of the physical structures for briquette production

f) Logistics
- Assembly and stocking of materials
- distribution of mini-briquettes

g) Organisation of the cultivation of bio-mass

h) Commercial
- Availability of micro-credits for growers
- Availability of micro-credits for briquette makers
- Prices for briquette distribution according to the various mixtures

4.2.8 STRUCTURE FOR THE RADIO STATION

While there are some sixty telephone booths and six post offices available in the project area, users have expressed an interest for establishing a local radio station. 

The establishment of a local radio station is therefore an integral part of the project. The station is a part of the management of communications concerning the project. Since most people in the project areas possess a radio, radio is an excellent way to spread information on the project developments and the management of the structures set up. It also enables users to discuss initiatives taken and to be taken, and to express their criticisms. It can also become a vehicle for local commerce.

The station will be placed in Kambiliampatti in the centre of the project area so as to limit the transmission radius. A PV operated station may be preferred to one running on "imported" electricity, as this increases the autonomy of the station and reduces long term financial leakage from the project area.

The management of the station will be completely autonomous.

Without influencing this independence in any way, the programme could indicatively coprise the following elements:

(a) Transmission of information on project activities (news bulletins)
- Convocation of meetings for structures (tanks Sangams, LETS systems etc)
- Information on decisions taken during meetings
- Information on progress made with the installation/setting up of the various structures
- Information of interest-free micro-credits conceded

(b) Transmissions by interest groups
- Initiatives the groups wish to take
- Information on initiatives under way

(c) Information on cultural and sporting activities in the project area

(d) Emergency services

(e) Promotion of the project towards the outside.

FINANCING

The setting up of the station is covered by a separate item in the indicative balance sheet.

The workshop must decide how the station reimburse this interest-free credit.

- Work is carried out under the local LETS money systems - Expenses in formal currency (electricity?, equipment and the costs of running it) would need to be paid back over 3 or 4 years. How:
-a) Collection of a small (formal currency) contribution at household level?
-b) Payments for services rendered to people living in the areas surrounding the project area
- c) Advertising by producers in the project area towards people living in the surrounding areas Usually just one Moraisian workshop will be held in a given project area.

Indicative participation

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
Consultant Terry Manning
At least one representative of the ONG
Representative of the Ministry of Communications
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
20 persons indicated by the tank Sangams interested in participating in the management of the station.
50 persons indicated by the tank Sangams, interested in producing programmes for the station

Duration of the workshop: about three weeks.

The Workshop will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) A coordination structure
- definition of the social form
- statutes
- rules
- professional and administrative structures
- financial aspects including payments
- relations with the local money LETS systems

b) Analysis of requirements
- detailed analysis of the communications needs of the individual structures created under the project
- demand in the project area
- demand outside the project area

c) Material structure
- Land
- Permits
- Office/studio
- Transmission equipment
- Equipment for production and storing of programmes

d) Logistics
- Transport
- Storage of materials
- Organisation of network

4.2.9 STRUCTURES FOR THE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

For possible technical solutions for the drinking water distribution system refer to:

DRAWING OF WATER SYSTEM STRUCTURES
DRAWING OF TYPICAL WATER TANK AREA.

One Moraisian workshop will be held.

Indicative participation

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
Consultant Terry Manning
Consultant EOS Consult
At least one representative of the NGO
Representative of the Health Ministry
Representative of the Rural Development ministry
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
30 persons indicated by the tank Sangams interested in the systematic maintenance of the structures
80 persons indicated by the tank Sangams, interested in drilling boreholes, drilling wells and building the associated civil and associated works

Duration of the workshop: about four weeks.

The Workshop will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) A coordination structure
- definition of the social form
- statutes
- rules
- professional and administrative structures
- financial aspects including payments
- relations with the local money LETS systems

b) Analysis of requirements
(Refer to Schedule 1 for full details)

c) Hydro-geological research

d) Preparation of maps showing:
- sites of boreholes and wells
- tank sites
- feed-pipe installation lines

e) Specifications
- Work bases/depots
- Boreholes/wells
- Solar pumps
- Hand pumps
- Washing areas
- Solar panels
- Panel supports
- Borehole/well surroundings
- Laying of pipelines
- Installation tanks
- Eventual installation of UV purification units
- Training of well Sangams
- Training of tank Sangam

f) Permits

g) The civil works
- Base for storage of equipment and materials
- Formation of teams
- Planning of works
- Logistics
- Equipment and materials

h) Installation of the structures

i) Maintenance
- Creation of the maintenance structure
- Relations with suppliers
- Importation and management of spare parts
- Planning of preventive maintenance
- Maintenance kits
- Monitoring system
- System of statistics

f) Logistics
- Assembly and stocking of materials
- distribution of mini-briquettes

g) Organisation of the cultivation of bio-mass

h) Commercial
- Availability of micro-credits for growers
- Availability of micro-credits for briquette makers
- Prices for briquette distribution according to the various mixtures

4.3 THIRD, IMPLEMENTATION PHASE

The structures created during the second phase execute the works they have planned:
- On-going work in the Community Health Clubs
- On-going hygiene education in schools
- On-going operation of the local LETS currency systems
- Start-up of the Micro-credits
- Start-up of recycling
- Start-up of mini-briquette and bio-mass production
- Completion of Gypsum composites  production units
- Start-up production of Gypsum composites  items for the project, including stoves and solar cookers
- Digging and lining of the wells and boreholes
- Construction of platforms for backup hand-pumps
- Construction of washing places
- Laying of water pipelines to the tanks
- Installation of the tanks.
- Installation of purification devices at schools and clinics
- Start-up of waste collection networks
- Installation of solar panels and pumps
- Installation of hand pumps
- Production of sanitation units started
- Operation of radio station

TOTAL EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE FOURTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE FIFTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE SIXTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE SEVENTH QUARTER

4.4 FOURTH, SECOND IMPLEMENTATION PHASE

On-going production of Gypsum composites  products
- PV lighting for study
- PV television for study purposes
- PV lighting in schools
- PV lighting and refrigeration in clinics in the project area
- Further PV water purification
- (Pro-memorium) Soil conservation and reforestation initiatives started
- (Pro-memorium) Rainwater harvesting begun

TOTAL EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER

DETAILED EXPENDITURE EIGHTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE NINTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE TENTH QUARTER

5. Short indicative budget

Item

Outgo (Capital)

Phase

Estimate (Euro)

01

OW health clubs

2

30.000

02

Formation of health clubs

2

10.000

03

Material for health clubs

2

5.000

04

Training of health workers

2

10.000

05

OW health courses in schools

2

10.000

06

Material for school courses

2

2.500

07

OW social structures

2

40.000

08

OW LETS systems

2

60.000

09

Office and equipment LETS systems

2

30.000

10

OW Micro-credit system

2

20.000

11

Office/equipment Micro-credit system

2

10.000

12

OW Gypsum composites production units

2

30.000

13

Shovel/preparation anhydrite supply site

2/3

10.000

14

Construction and equipping anhydrite factory (*20000 FOR EACH FACTORY) ASSUMING 3 UNITS

2/3

60.000

15

Moulds for anhydrite products (*20000 FOR EACH FACTORY) ASSUMING 3 UNITS

2/3

60.000

16

Location gypsum depots and quality control

2

3.000

17

OW recycling system

2

30.000

18

Setting up recycling centre network

3

150.000

19

Setting up compost collection network

3

5.000

20

OW Bio-mass system

3

15.000

21

OW Drinking water system

2/3

25.000

22

Setting up of project workplace

2

32.000

23

Project transport

2

100.000

24

Vehicles and materials for wells

3

150.000

25

Fuel and maintenance vehicles

3

26.000

26

Drilling/lining costs

3

200.000

27

Labour for wells - LETS systems

3

pro-memorium

28

63 Washing places- LETS systems

3

pro-memorium

29

63 Platforms for hand-pumps - LETS systems

3

pro-memorium

30

267 Solar Pumps

3

357.000

31

267 Supports for solar panels

3

75.000

32

Solar panels (79.5 kW)

3

496.800

33

Hand-pumps groups (132 pumps)

3

80.000

34

Cables, feed-pipe for pumps/wells

3

98.000

35

Pipe lines from wells to tanks - 150000m @ Euro 0.65

3

100.000

36

Labour for laying water pipelines- LETS

3

pro-memorium

37

267 Water tanks (@ 2m * 1.7m)- mostly LETS

3

60.000

38

267 Bases for water tanks - mostly LETS

3

30.000

39

Supervision of installation and training maintenance operators

3

15.000

40

Purchase spare parts supplies

3

20.000

41

Permits and formalities

2

1.000

42

Preparation and formulation of project specifications

2

6.000

43

100 Solar water purification installations for clinics and schools

3

47.500

44

900 Solar water purification installations (inc.15.000 Wp panels)

4

128.500

45

267 PV lighting units for study purposes

4

200.000

46

PV television for study

4

pro-memorium

47

10 PV lighting systems for schools in villages without electricity

4

10.000

48

PV lighting for clinics outside the project area

4

pro-memorium

49

PV lighting for clinics inside the project area

4

pro-memorium

50

PV refrigeration for clinics @ Euro 5000/clinic

4

pro-memorium

51

Water testing equipment

4

5.000

52

Transport costs Euro to India

2/3

30.000

53

Transport costs internal to Sanarpatty

2/3

22.500

54

Administration and supervision at Sanarpatty India

3/4

36.000

55

Fee Project coordinator and assistant @Euro 50000/year

1/5

100.000

56

General project consulting Manning @Euro 50000/year

1/5

100.000

57

Fund for PV lighting solar home systems

4

180.000

58

Sanitation facilities with exception of some additives will be manufactured and installed within the local LETS systems

3/4

15.000

59

OW radio station

4

25.000

60

Fund for radio station

4

52.000

60

Reserves 8.97% of total

5

336.200

61

General total

5

3.750.000

SHORT ANALYSIS

ON-GOING COSTS

INCOME

Comments

1. The above net income is sufficient to finance and repay an interest free loan for Euro 3.750.000 over a period of 10 years, taking the various reserves into account.
2. Interest-free loan for Gypsum composites  each factory Euro 40.000, for repayment over a period of 3-5 years is included in the above figures.
3. At the end of the ten years' period, on repayment of loan, large capital reserves will be built up for use in Micro-credits and, subsequently, for the extension and renewal of the capital goods.
4. Payments for water facilities for schools and clinics are included in the users' monthly contributions.
5. Payments for PV lighting installations for study purposes will be financed by each tank Sangam area separately.
6. Savings on the purchasing of bio-mass for cooking and the costs of drinking water will at least partly offset the costs of the project.

GRAPHS FORMING AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE PROJECT DOCUMENT

GRAPH SHOWING DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO-LOANS
CASH FLOW DIAGRAM.
THE INTEREST-FREE LOAN CYCLE
HOW THE ORIGINAL SEED LOAN MONEY IS USED
TYPICAL PROJECT EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER - budget items 01-30
TYPICAL PROJECT EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER - budget items.
TOTAL EXPENDITURE BY QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE FIRST QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE SECOND QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE THIRD QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE FOURTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE FIFTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE SIXTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE SEVENTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE EIGHTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE NINTH QUARTER
DETAILED EXPENDITURE TENTH QUARTER

RECYCLING OF FUNDS FOR MICRO-LOANS

The funds recycled are approximately 17.038.235 Euro. They are made up of:

a) Repayments of the interest-free seed loan itself. These are shown as horizontal lines at the bottom of the micro-loans graph. They are constant. During quarters 42-45 the amounts left for repayment UNDER THE PROJECT are reduced to zero. However users continue to make monthly contributions on their own account, so the recycling of funds will in practice continue. The capital fund will build up again as shown in the micro-loans graph. It will drop again when replacements of the original capital goods are made or the system services extended. It will then build up for a third time to cover further collective capital investments and so on for so long as the users continue making their monthly contributions.

b) Certain capital sums (eg repayments for the Gypsum composites  factories) and reserves.

c) Repayments under the micro-loans. These are seen as diagonal lines in the micro-loans graph. Towards the end of the project period, payback times are shortened to ensure capital re-enters in time for repayment of the original seed loan.

 

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

THE PROJECT IN DETAIL

1. Justification of the project

A clean healthy environment is unthinkable without adequate hygiene education, good sanitation and clean drinking water. Improving the health and quality of life of those living in poor communities depends on improving their basic community infrastructure. Better technology now allows users living far away from their traditional water sources to have clean drinking water, sanitation, hygiene education, and on-going local development at low cost.

Yet much of the world's population is still without safe sanitation and drinking water. Local economies have long since been "drained" of the formal money needed to exchange goods and services in the present market economy.

In the Sanarpatty project area in the Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu in India, there are no community level hygiene education programmes. Traditional principles of hygiene such as washing hands before meals and after going to the toilet and personal cleanliness are however generally applied. Sometimes water is boiled but it is usually used without treatment. The project aims at incorporating this work under the Health Clubs to be set up.

School hygiene education lessons focus on cleanliness, environment and sanitation, but specific on-going hygiene courses for children are not held in the primary schools. The project aims at incorporating the work already done within formal on-going hygiene education courses in the schools.

There are practically no sanitation structures at all in the Sanarpatty Block. People use urinate and defecate in open fields and in rivers. They clean themselves after defecation with river water wherever possible.

Despite important efforts by national and state authorities, some 40% of the villages in the project area have no access to any organised water supply. Many users use collect water from open wells which are unprotected against the entry of returning surface water, insects animals and other contaminants. In many villages water has to be fetched from rivers and streams. Women and children often have to carry water over several kilometres from contaminated sources to their houses. Water quality in these areas is considered poor. Few steps are taken to purify water. Water is kept in pots, tins and tanks. Rainwater harvesting techniques are common during the rainy season.

Where water is supplied by the state government to public taps, and in the few cases where private household connections have been made, water quality is generally considered to be acceptable.  Water supply through these sources is only available at specified times of the day.

For full details of the existing water supply, refer to the schedules for each panchyat in Existing water supplies in the project area.

Open surface water, insufficiently protected latrines, open defecation zones, and poor water quality spread diseases such as malaria, typhoid, dysentery, and cold fever.

Time is often wasted fetching dirty water which is then usually drunk with all its pathogens without treatment and without being boiled.

A goal of the project is to help to reduce water-borne disease so medical and financial resources can be re-directed to other health objectives like vaccination programmes and preventive medicines.

In practical terms, this means giving the people througghout the Sanarpatty area a sufficient and clean drinking water supply for household use as a supplement to existing water supplies.

The project includes Gypsum composites  production units whose first job will be to make water storage tanks and borehole and well linings for the project. Following that, they will also make tanks, san-plats and dry toilet pots for sanitation facilities. Toilets and waste disposal units will be built for each family in the project area as they may wish to install them, and, where necessary in local schools and clinics. In principle, formal currency investment will not be needed for this work as most of it can be done using the local LETS currency systems to be set up as part of the project. Once the needs of the project have been met, the Gypsum composites  units can start making other products, and "export" to other projects in the region and beyond.

From the beginning Community Health Clubs will be set up to support on-going hygiene education to optimise the benefit from the new water and sanitation services. The clubs will also be the main forum for identifying community needs and planning project implementation. Hygiene education courses will also be implemented in the schools in the project area.

A system to collect and recycle organic compost, urine, grey water and non-organic solid waste will be set up where necessary during the 4th phase of the project. The local currency (LETS) systems will be used for this work.

Students wishing to study in the evenings must usually do so with the limited and pollution given by kerosene lamps. Many schools also have evening classes for up to four hours a day. PV lighting for study purposes will therefore be provided where a collective study room is already available or built at tank sangam level using the local LETS currencies. The project also includes solar powered refrigeration units for clinics which are not grid connected.

Users (especially women) may obtain interest-free micro-credit loans if they need PV lighting systems to increase their productivity in the evening. Families later able to pay for their own PV Home Systems will do so individually under a micro-credit scheme operated by the Sanarpatty Cooperative Local Development Bank (to be instituted) or under self-terminating interest-free credit groups at tank Sangam level.

Cooking is done in the project area by women and it takes at least 30-60 minutes per meal and on an average about three hours. In 75% of the cases, firewood is used  A support for the aluminium or baked clay pot is erected, and firewood is placed under the pot and the fire is lighted. This is an extremely inefficient use of energy. The average use of biomass, nearly always wood, is 4kg per fmily per day. This amounts to 7000-8000 tons of firewood per year in the project area, with the consequential pollution of the living areas and villages environments. Upper respiratory infections are a common health problem in the project area. 

Firewood usually has no formal financial cost, but collection of firewood by women and children is very time-consuming and has a very high social cost to the community.

Smoky, polluted, living environments will be eliminated by the use of energy efficient stoves made by the locale The Gypsum composites production units. The stoves will be made for pot sizes commonly used in the community. Each family may buy as many stoves as it needs. The stoves will burn most kinds of fuel though the preferred fuel will be mini-briquettes hand pressed by individual homeowners or made by local tradesmen. Some crops will be sustainably grown for use as fuel. They will then be mixed with straw, twigs, leaves, dung and other available materials without reducing the amount of fertilisers normally used for agriculture.

The remaining 25% of the families use kerosene for cooking. Kerosene costs about Euro 0.20 per litre. Consumption is about 1 litre of kerosene per day, which means that these families spend Euro 5-6 per month for cooking purposes.

Solar cookers will also be made under the LETS system from Gypsum composites  where daytime cooking is not in conflict with local customs

There are no systems available for waste collection in the project area. Organic waste other than urine and faeces is mostly household or food waste, which amounts to about 2kg per family per day of 5000 tons per year. At best, this is dumped at a site which becomes smelly and attracts vermin. There are no arrangements at all for non-organic waste products.

Under the project most organic waste, including urine and faeces, will be treated at household and local level and transformed into high value-added products for recycling for food production. A network of recycling centres will be set up for to receive non-organic waste materials for recycling. The centres will also provide a rubbish collection service where required. Collection of environmentally harmful rubbish will be paid for by the users. The collectors may pay for useful materials under the local LETS system. The idea is to keep as much residual and recyclable value as possible within the local economy. The local system can also earn some formal currency by exporting waste for industrial recycling that cannot be recycled locally. Waste from clinics will be addressed separately.

Standard sanitation and waste removal services, where required, will also be supplied for schools and clinics in the project area. Specialised waste removal from clinics will be discussed separately.

2. Cooperation of the local people

The users themselves are responsible for the creation of the project structures and their the execution, running and maintenance. They pay for and own the structures.

The users will create the structures during a series of organisational workshops following the method developed by the Brazilian sociologist Clodomir Santos de Morais. A bibliography of the work of de Morais is set out in Schedule 2. The project will try to put at the disposal of the often very large groups involved in the workshops, but ONLY ON REQUEST, the consultants, materials and equipment necessary for the services and structures in question. The groups organise themselves (often which great difficulty), set up their administrative structures, procure the necessary authorisations and permits, proceed with the construction of factories, and to the production and sale of their products and services as they consider fit.

Key to the formation of the structures foreseen in the project is the order in which the workshops are held. It is not possible to hold workshops to set up the tank sangams (the key project structures) for instance until a suitable platform has been created to enable women, and especially Dalit women, to organise themselves, express themselves at meetings and actively participate in the project structures. This is done during the organisation workshop setting up the health clubs. 

It is not possible to set up structures for the manufacture of articles for sanitation purposes until the local money LETS system making their production, distribution, sale and installation without the need for formal money has been established.

The order of sequence indicated in section 4.2 of the main project document is the following:

2.01 Health clubs
2.02 Social structures
2.03 LETS system
2.04 Micro-credit system
2.05 Gypsum composites units
2.06 Recycling systems
2.07 Bio-mass production
2.08 Radio station
2.09 Drinking water
2.10 Lighting etc

The workshops represent a general mobilisation of the population, with an active participation of at least 3000-4000 people out of total of 61.000, representing about 10% of the active population. The remaining 88% will be indirectly mobilised through the use of structures such as the local money system and the interest-free micro-credit system to be set up.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1 HEALTH CLUBS AND HYGIENE EDUCATION

The Health clubs have two tasks:

The first is hygiene education itself tending to the improvement of health standards pending the installation of the drinking water and sanitation structures foreseen under the project. In this work, the health clubs will support on-going initiatives of community health workers of the Ministry of Health and that of the local Water and Sanitation Committees.

The second is the formation of a socially acceptable platform enabling the population, and in particular Dalit women, to work together, which is basic to the success of the project. The health clubs constitute a forum for women, helping them to identify the requirements of the community and to fully participate in the planning and execution of successive phases.

Hygiene education should become an integral part of the school curriculum at all levels in the schools in the project area. The purpose of the courses is to reinforce the work done by the Health Clubs. The cooperation of trained personnel of the Ministry of Health is foreseen. This personnel will participate in the Health Club workshops during which the courses will actually be prepared and the Health Clubs organised. Teachers from the schools will also participate in the workshop and in the preparation of the material for the courses.

Where necessary, schools will be supplied with appropriate quality clean drinking water and proper sanitation systems under the project.

In some cases children from poorer families may not have access to the schooling system, especially where schooling is mostly funded by parents. This will put extra responsibility on the Health Clubs which will in such cases be called upon to cover hygiene education for the children not covered under the arrangements made with the schools.

BASIC COURSE FOR HEALTH CLUBS

2.2 SOCIAL STRUCTURES

All activities will be carried out by the users themselves. The structures are worked out during the organisational workshops foreseen. The following is what might expect to result from the workshops.

The basic administrative structure foreseen by the project is the tank sangam.

The tasks of the Tank Sangam are numerous and include, by way of example,:
- Analysis of the local situation (200 people - 40  families)
- Definition of the local issues and problems
- Liaison with the Health Clubs already established
- Liaison with the local currency LETS systems about to be formed
- Organisation of monthly users' meetings
- Identification of the best projects for Micro-credit development loans
- Setting priorities for Micro-credit loans
- Deciding the priorities for siting the wells and washing places, with special input from women's groups
- Deciding the siting of tanks and water pipeline routes
- Deciding priorities for the siting and installation of sanitation units
- Deciding the pot sizes for stoves and solar cookers
- Liaison with the compost collection and recycling network
- Liaison with the grey water/urine collection and recycling network
- Planning what can be done by the local people themselves at the normal ruling daily rate of pay and what can be done in the local LETS currency.
- Systematically monitoring project progress and on-going administration with the users' Sangams (comprising mostly women)
- Organising daily maintenance of the tank areas, rules of use
- Managing any local disputes relating to the project
- Collection of the monthly contributions to the Cooperative Development Fund
- Nomination of participants to various organisational workshops
- Proposals for the support of families with difficulty in making their contributions

TANK SANGAMS - THE KEY STRUCTURES

WELL SANGAMS

2.3 LOCAL MONEY LETS STRUCTURE

The local exchange trading (LETS) system foreseen will be set up a during Moraisian organisational workshop.

The following texts, drawings and graphs form an integral part of this project proposal. They indicate the type of structure which can be expected to come out of the workshop.

DRAWING OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES
DRAWING OF LETS STRUCTURES
HOW A LETS TRANSACTION WORKS
DETAILED INFORMATION ON LETS SYSTEMS

Because of the layout of the project area, just the one local LETS currency system will be set up.

All adults within the system will be registered as members, but use of the system with exceptions for goods and services necessary for the project itself, will be voluntary. Any member may usually freely choose whether to conduct a given transaction in the local currency system or within the formal currency system.

The LETS group will have some 35000 registered adult members. Children under the age of 12 will not be registered as they are not, under the international convention on the rights of children, allowed to work. They will become registered members of their local LETS system upon reaching the age of 12. The members of each group will be coded so that their tank-Sangam and well areas can be identified and the cost of more local, optional, initiatives such as PV lighting for study purposes debited to the members directly involved rather than to the whole project area. In the same way, the coding can allow for identification of members of clubs, cooperatives and other informal groups as they may be formed.

It is hoped that with the cooperation of the Tamil Nadu education department and with the expected sharp improvement in the quality of life of the people in the project area, the minimum school leaving age and therefore the moment of registration, can be gradually increased to 16 years. 

A "catalogue" of goods and services is prepared periodically in a form which understandable/readable by the group members. In the Sanarpatty area, what is available and who provides it will often be widely known at local level. However, the range of activities is destined to increase rapidly. 

The reference value of the local money system could be to the Indian rupee if it were considered stable (=inflation free) enough. Or it could be based on the perceived average value of an hour's work. Or on the basis of a kilo of a local staple product. 

Later on, with more project applications in the Dindigul area, the various local LETS currencies will all have the same reference value. They will therefore be easily transferable from one to another. However, not all goods and services will be transferable between the different systems, as this could lead to a drain of resources from one system to another. LETS systems work best when the financial resources remain balanced within each system. The LETS coordinators and the members will decide which goods and services are "exportable". Gypsum composites products made in group A, for instance, could be exportable to group "B". Cloth made in group "B" may be exportable to group A. Crops and vegetables not grown in one group could be importable from the others.

Assume that a Gypsum composites  product is sold by a group A member to a group B member. The transaction would be in local currency A. The Gypsum composites  producer would be credited in local currency A. The coordinator of group A would advise his counterpart in group B of the debit for the group B member and separately credit group A with the same amount in group B currency. The group B coordinator would debit the group B buyer in local currency B, and, separately, debit group B with the same amount in group A currency. Goods and services supplied by group B to group A would be registered the other way round. The group A and B coordinators then simply eliminate the respective debits and credits by pairing value units one for one.

The processes broadly follow traditional balance of payments transactions but the objective is to maintain a balance in imports and exports. A large debit balance between one LETS group and another would show resources are being transferred from one group to another. The coordinators would then have to take steps to correct the imbalance. They could, for example, temporarily extend the range of goods and services the debtor group can export to the creditor group, such as by arranging a special market.

It is a key to the success of the system that the imports and exports of each group remain balanced, their sum tending to zero.

There will be an elected local LETS coordinator in each tank Sangam area. The LETS coordinator will need to be literate and will be responsible to the general LETS system coordinator. The local coordinators will help those members unable to write/sign their cheques (or deal with other methods of payment), arrange distribution of chequebooks (or other payment forms) to the LETS users, collect the used cheques (or equivalent) deposited in the LETS POST box near the local water tank and take them to the general LETS systems coordinator for registration. The local coordinators will also display the monthly or weekly reports on the LETS NOTICE BOARD near or above the LETS POST box, advise illiterate members of their LETS balances, call a fortnightly or monthly meeting where the users can discuss the operation of their LETS system, make special requests (such as, for example, increasing the debt limit for sick members or for those making special purchases), and discuss ways to use the goods and services of those with high debts so as to help balance their trading accounts. The local coordinators will also discuss with the members selected proposals for allowing export and import of goods and services into the local LETS system and report back to the general LETS coordinator.

The first general LETS system coordinator will be chosen by the Project Coordinator. He/she and the locally elected LETS coordinators will make up the LETS Sangam. The LETS Sangam will meet at least once a month to discuss particular problems and to decide on actions needed to balance the export/import accounts amongst the various local LETS currencies.

The fortnightly/monthly reports for members in each tank Sangam area will be published on the local LETS NOTICE board and discussed at a general meeting of the local members. The report will show, for each member, the previous balance, the current balance, the total number of plus transactions and minus transactions conducted, and list each plus and minus transaction since the previous report.

The cheque (or other transaction form used) will have two parts. Each part will have the member's name and LETS number pre-printed on it. The SELLER'S cheque is used in each transaction. The BUYERS name and system code are filled in on the cheque, with the assistance of the local coordinator where necessary, as well as a description (with LETS code) of the goods or services sold. Finally the cheque is signed by BOTH parties and deposited in the LETS post box. The amount credited to the seller must be exactly the same as that debited to the buyer.

Payments for LETS services provided by members to their communities will be debited to a special LETS code for the community. When the community debt reaches one LETS currency unit (or other agreed amount) for each member, each member will be debited with that amount. The community LETS code will then be credited by the same total amount. This system allows collective communal property to be involved in LETS transactions. For example, the sale of wood from communal land can be registered as a credit to the LETS group involved, and then transferred from there to individual group members.

2.4 MICRO-CREDIT STRUCTURES

The following drawings and graphs form an integral part of this project proposal. They give an idea of what the results of the Moraisian organisational workshops setting the structures up might produce.

DRAWING OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES.
CHART ILLUSTRATING MICRO-LOANS SCHEME.
THE INTEREST-FREE LOAN CYCLE.
HOW THE ORIGINAL SEED LOAN MONEY IS USED.

The micro-credit system will be set up by the Moraisian organisation workshop conducted for the purpose.

The proposed micro-credit system will be different from those formed up till now. The loan capital repayments and longer term reserves within the project itself will be used to finance the micro-credit system. This is possible because the money is already available for multiple re-cycling, interest-free. When, at the close of the ten years' loan repayment period, the original project capital is repaid, the users will continue their monthly contributions to build up capital for system extensions and to replace the system hardware after 20-30 years. This money, which will build up to a considerable sum, also becomes available for interest-free micro-credits within the project area until it is needed.

Final repayments of blocks of micro-credits will be coordinated so that money for long term capital investment purposes (system replacement and extensions) will be available when it is needed. This way, money for the micro-credits granted is generated by the users themselves within the framework of the project and those micro-credits belong to the users. They are interest-free to ensure they continue to re-circulate within the local economy.

The Sanarpatty Cooperative Local Development Bank will charge a set fee in the local LETS currency for each transaction to cover its costs and make a socially acceptable "profit". Its fee will be set before the system starts working. The fee is expressed in the local LETS currency to stop leakage of formal money from the local economy. Costs for activities such as collection of payments and distribution of information will all be paid for in the local LETS currency.

The Sanarpatty Local Cooperative Development Bank will thus become a regular member of the local LETS systems. It could, for instance, use the LETS credits it derives from its banking services to buy local products and services and distribute them outside the system in exchange for formal currency.

The purpose of the planned interest-free Micro-Credit system is to ensure that individuals or cooperatives wanting to expand their production but who have no access to formal currency to pay for their capital investment, can get interest-free micro-credit loans to boost the local economy. The Micro-credit system is therefore applied only to micro-project investment which needs to be made outside the local currency exchange (LETS) system.

The pay-back time for the interest free loans will vary from case to case. Some investments will generate more goods and services that can be sold outside the local LETS currency area than others. The formal currency so earned can then be used to repay the loans. The sale of some production in the formal economy will be a condition for the granting of the Micro-Credit loan. The speed at which the formal loan currency can be recovered will determine the payback period, which could therefore be anything between a few months and a few years. The loan repayments must be realistically possible. The system is cooperative and interest free and designed to enhance the general welfare within the beneficiary communities. As with the Grameen bank systems, any person or cooperative group wanting a Micro-Loan will be expected to produce (two or three) friends who agree to be jointly and severally liable for the periodic loan repayments, and to make sure they are made on time. Since the Micro-credits are essentially self-financed by the communities through their communal funds, the funding priorities must be left to the communities themselves. This is especially so where potential conflicts of interest arise because there is not enough funding immediately available to meet all requests for assistance. Meetings to discuss members' proposals and further developments with on-going projects will become a feature of the social life of the communities. Since it is expected that many of the beneficiaries under the scheme will be women and women's groups, women will need to have full representation during such meetings. One of the basic goals of the formation of the Community Health Clubs foreseen is to use them as a launching pad to create women's groups. These groups will give women the chance to discuss their needs, develop their priorities, and make submissions during the Micro-Credit meetings. The Health Clubs should also be able to ensure that women participate en bloc at the Micro-Credit meetings.

Rules for the organisation of the Micro-Credit meetings will be set up during the workshop with the full participation of the beneficiary communities. These rules must lay down the general principles behind the system. These would, for example, include:

1) All loans are to enable the beneficiary to extend his/her income by producing more goods and services
2) The goods and services must benefit the general interests of the community and encourage exchanges under the local LETS systems.
3) Some of the goods and services must be saleable outside the LETS systems to earn formal currency to repay the micro-loan.
4) The Micro-Credit loan must promote the rapid circulation of formal money within the beneficiary communities. For example, using formal currency to build a clinic or hospital would not qualify for micro-credits because the capital invested cannot be re-circulated. On the other hand, buying equipment for testing water quality (foreseen in the project) would qualify, as the formal currency cost can be recovered by charging in formal currency for water analyses conducted for users outside the project area.
5) Special priority will be given in the first instance to micro-loans to start the collection and transport of compost, urine, and grey water, and establish the recycling centres that will collect, store, and export non-organic waste products from the project area.

2.5 THE GYPSUM COMPOSITES FACTORIES

The organisation workshops foreseen will decide where the Gypsum composites production units will be constructed.

Consideration should be given to the distance of the sites from the gypsum or anhydrite deposits which will feed them. These sites will be included on the maps in Schedule 3.

The costs of locating gypsums/anhydrite deposits are covered as a separate item in the budget.

For more information on the Gypsum composites technology as such refer to Schedule 6.

GYPSUM COMPOSITES

PREPARATION OF GYPSUM COMPOSITES PRODUCTS.

2.6 RECYCLING STRUCTURES

The system for the collection of recycling of waste waters, urine, excreta, other organic solids, non-organic solids will be set up during Moraisian organisation workshops held for the purpose. The following is an indication of the type of structure which would be expected to emerge during the workshops.

The operations will take place under the local money LETS systems. A separate interest-free credit fund is provided in the budget for purchase of equipment which is not available locally and/or which has to be paid for in formal currency.

In principle, the equipment used should not require the consumption of imported energy (electricity, diesel, petrol etc) which causes an on-going financial leakage from the project area. Transport distances should be kept as short as possible.

The following drawings and graphs form an integral part of this project proposal.

DRAWING OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES.
DRAWING OF WASTE DISPOSAL STRUCTURES
DRAWING OF COMPOSTING TOILET TANK MADE FROM GYPSUM COMPOSITES

The sanitation and rubbish collection package includes the following elements:

- 1) Dry composting toilet tanks made from Gypsum composites
- 2) Toilet tanks for urine made from Gypsum composites
- 3) Grey water tanks made from Gypsum composites
- 4) Locally made compost bins for organic waste other than urine, faeces and grey water.
- 5) A system to collect and where necessary store the compost from 1) and 4), urine from 2) and grey water (from 3) of users who have no land or garden on which to recycle their own waste.
- 6) A system to collect and recycle non-organic solid waste through recycling centres.

The main principles behind the system are:

- (a) Recycling should always be done at the lowest possible level, starting with the individual user.
- (b) Recycling at a second level should also be done as late as possible during the composting cycle to reduce the volume of material handled.
- (b) The whole system should be operated within the local (LETS) currency.
- (b) Capital investment for recycling equipment, transport and storage under 5) and 6) will be a priority for Micro-credit loans.
- (e) "Dirty" work will be better paid than "clean" work in the LETS systems, because the rate of pay will reflect the willingness of workers to do the work. Those doing unpleasant work will have an above-average income within the LETS systems so that there should be no difficulty finding people to do the work.
- (f) Waste should, as far as possible, be recycled within the project area so communities are self-sufficient and there is no leakage of formal money from the system. In particular, materials like metals, paper, plastics can often be treated at local level for use in local industries creating jobs and local value added during both treatment and production. The principle also promotes the export of re-cycled products for formal currency which will be used to repay the interest free micro-credits loans.
- (g) Lucrative job possibilities are created within the system.
- (h) Export and sale of selected non-organic solid waste through the recycling centres for formal currency so micro-credits for re-cycling operation can be repaid.
- (i) Selected non-organic solid waste products will treated locally and recycled as raw material for local artisan industries.
- (j) Interest free micro-loans for compost collectors under 5) above may need to be for a longer term than other micro-credits as most of the compost will be recycled within the local currency system. Some of the compost collection charges may have to be in formal currency or the equipment may need to be used part-time outside the LETS system to help earn formal currency to repay the micro-credit loans.
- (k) Recycling of special industrial and medical wastes to be addressed separately.

Taking the above-mentioned 6 elements in turn:

1) DRY COMPOSTING TOILET TANKS

DRAWING OF COMPOSTING TOILET TANK MADE FROM GYPSUM COMPOSITES.

Two Gypsum composites tanks will be needed to collect and compost faeces.

The first properly aerated composting toilet tank is used until it is more or less full. It is then sealed and allowed to compost for 9-12 months while the second toilet tank is being used. The compost in the first tank reduces to about one wheelbarrow full of soil per adult person per year, and after the 9-12 months composting period it can be safely and profitably used as soil conditioner. Were an improved evaporation system to be used, the faeces in the single tank used would be evaporated by relatively warm air circulation in the system. This process forms dry coagulated lumps that look like dry dogs' food. These residues are light and greatly reduced in volume. They can be emptied at any time over 2-3 year periods and used as soil conditioner. Users who do not want to dispose of the resultant soil conditioner themselves will hire local operators to do the work under the local LETS currency system.

Only one toilet seat/sanplat is required for double dry-tank installations. It is simply re-installed over the empty tank when the tanks are changed.

The second tank in the two-tank system can be bought at a later phase of the project because it will not be needed for at least a year. This helps spread purchases within the LETS system over a wider time span.

The small quantities of water in containers used by toilet users for toilet cleaning and for personal hygiene will be added to the dry toilet tanks.

2. URINE TANKS

The urine tanks will have to be emptied regularly unless evaporation systems are used. Wet systems are preferred because they create more value added in terms of increased garden production. Urine, with a little lime sawdust or equivalent added regularly, can be used systematically for watering plants as long as it is diluted with 10 parts of water or grey water to one part of urine, substantially increasing the productivity of the garden.

The small quantities of water in containers used by urinal users for urinal cleaning and for personal hygiene will be added to the urine tanks.

Users unable to re-cycle the urine from their tanks and who do not use evaporation systems will have to arrange for the urine tanks to be emptied periodically under the local LETS system for re-cycling within the project area.

3. GREY WATER TANKS

These Gypsum composites  tanks will usually be near the users houses to collect waste water from normal household use. Ten parts of grey water mixed with one part of urine can also be recycled for use on gardens. It can also be recycled as it is for use on gardens.

Where appropriate, simple filter systems will be used to eliminate grease, oils, and similar from the grey water. The filtered out solids will be stored in the compost bin.

Users unable to re-cycle the grey water from their tanks will need to arrange for the tanks to be emptied periodically under the local LETS currency system for re-cycling within the project area.

4. COMPOST BINS FOR ORGANIC HOUSE WASTE OTHER THAN FAECES, URINE, AND GREY WATER

Other organic household waste is mostly made up from kitchen refuse that has to be outside the users' houses without giving rise to unpleasant smells or attracting insects. It can usually be mixed with soil and composted in an appropriate locally made bin or tank. The compost can then be disposed of in the garden if there is one, or it can collected periodically under the LETS system and re-cycled elsewhere in the project area.

Animals such as chickens and goats are capable of productively recycling normal kitchen refuse.

5. SYSTEM FOR COLLECTING AND STORING COMPOST

The need for collection and the amount of composting prior to collection will depend on the living space available to users. It will therefore vary from project to project and from zone to zone.

The workers who collect, store, and re-cycle the compost will get priority micro-credits to buy the equipment they need. They will be well paid within the local currency system to do the work which is likely to be considered less attractive than other jobs.

6. SYSTEM FOR COLLECTING AND DISPOSAL OF NON-ORGANIC SOLID WASTE THROUGH RECYCLING CENTRES

Recycling centres will be established on a zone basis. Users will be required to take their non-organic solid waste to their zone centre. They can also asks the recycling centre to collect their waste and pay for the service in local (LETS) currency.

The recycling centres will sort the waste and store it until there is enough to sell commercially. Some centres may specialise by buying some kinds of waste collected by other centres so as to increase the commercial volume for export. They may also treat the waste they specialise in and prepare it for use by local industry, keeping the added value within the local system.

Re-cycling centre owners will get priority for micro-credit loans to buy the equipment they need to collect, store, and treat the waste.

Useful references for composting systems and integrated recycling are:
Winblad Uno et al, "Ecological Sanitation", SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency), Stockholm, 1998. ISBN 91 586 76 12 0.
Del Porto D and Steinfeld C, "The composting toilet system book", CEPP (Centre for Ecological Pollution Prevention), Massachusetts, 1999 ISBN 0-9666783-0-3
Sawyer Ron (editor), "Closing the Loop - Ecological sanitation for food security", UNDP-SIDA, Mexico 2000, ISBN 91-586-8935-4
Foo Jacky, "Integrated bio-systems: a global perspective", InFoRM (National Workshop on Integrated Food Production and Resource Management, Brisbane, 2000.

2.7 ENERGY EFFICIENT STOVES, LOCALLY SUSTAINABLE BIO-MASS PRODUCTION, AND SOLAR COOKERS

DRAWING OF GYPSUM COMPOSITES STOVE

Cooking is the most energy-intensive activity in the project area. About 75% of all the fuel used for the comes from bio-mass, usually wood. Inefficient use of wood for cooking has serious consequences, including health dangers, air-pollution, de-forestation and poverty, especially in the towns and larger villages.

For example, wood often has to be collected at considerable social cost by women and children. 

In the 25% of cases where kerosene is used for cooking as well as for lighting fuel costs are one of the biggest budget items of families in the Sanarpatty area. Kerosene costs 0.20 Euro per litre.

Local production of highly efficient stoves under local LETS systems can eliminate or at least substantially reduce the need to import wood into the project area. Under the project proposals wood will not be needed at all. The benefits of just this single project item are dramatic, including:

- halting the depletion of forests
- helping to stop erosion
-reducing the CO2 emissions
- reducing smog formation in cities
- releasing users from an unsustainable financial burden
- using (some of) the financial saving to finance this whole development project

The proposed highly efficient Gypsum composites  stoves will reduce the bio-mass needed for cooking by up to 60%. The stoves will run with any kind of fuel. Importantly, the reduced bio mass needed to fuel them can be 100% locally produced, creating jobs to grow it, to make mini-briquettes for cooking and to distribute the briquettes. The production of bio-mass for cooking must not affect the production of local fertiliser for agriculture.

Gypsum composites  stoves have been preferred to solar cookers (though these can always be offered as an option) because the use of solar energy for cooking does not always coincide with users' eating habits. The stoves also allow people to retain their customary cooking methods and preferred pot and pan sizes, and are better adapted to preparing traditional staple foods. They incorporate heat level control, and will allow circulation of smoke so that the heat in the smoke is utilised.

The stoves will be locally sized to suit the two or three most commonly used pots and pans. Each family will buy as many stoves as it needs and can afford using the local LETS currency.

BIO-MASS FOR THE ENERGY EFFICIENT STOVES

The high efficiency stoves burn any sort of fuel. The project provides for locally manufactured mini-briquettes to be used. The recipes for the mini-briquettes are expected to vary from one local LETS system to another and maybe from one part of a LETS system to another depending on the materials actually available and local cooking customs. The burning speed will be controlled by adding water and/or vegetable oils and/or animal fats and/or dung and/or salt. Several kinds of mini-briquettes might be available to suit the different cooking jobs.

The mini-briquettes will be made from local waste materials like straw, leaves, sticks, paper, and dung. Suitable fast-growing crops will also be planted to produce enough local bio-mass to make the mini-briquettes needed in the project area. Using the LETS currency system, the growers will either sell the crops directly to mini-briquette manufacturers or to tradesmen equipped to treat the bio-mass to make it suitable to use in briquettes.

SOLAR COOKER PRODUCTION

Where their use is not in conflict with local eating habits, solar cookers will be built under the LETS system for daytime cooking.

The solar cooker recipients will be made from Gypsum composites . South African technology in the public domain will be used.

2.8 DRINKING WATER SUPPLY STRUCTURES

The structures necessary for clean and sufficient drinking water supply are the ones calling for the heaviest input in terms of formal capital. The structures will be set up during the course of a Moraisain organisational workshop which will follow the formation of most of the other structures foreseen. The following indications will be subject to modifications, some of them substantial. They will, however, give an idea of the dimensions of the project.

2.8.1 Siting of the boreholes/wells

The following drawings and graphs form an integral part of this project proposal.

DRAWING OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES.
DRAWING OF WATER SYSTEM STRUCTURES.
WELL SANGAMS
DRAWING OF TYPICAL WATER TANK AREA.

Refer to maps in Schedule 3).

2.8.2 Basic project specifications

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.01 (Chenkurchi)

Inhabitants : 640 households, 3218 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 3218 people = 80450 litres/day
Available water supply : One overhead tank and 4 hand-pumps
Structures : There is one high school 

The village is connected to the electricity grid.

Dig two wells in Chenkurchi.

Pump a total of 90m3 water per day.

Each well will be fitted with 6 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of eleven pumps dedicated to a tank serving 292 people

One pump dedicated to a tank serving the high school.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Each well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1800Wp ( being 24 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Six solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Six tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.02 (Thiventharapuram and Indira Colony)

Inhabitants : (assessed) 80 households, 418 population of which:

Thiventharapurum ("Deivendiram"?) 218 and Indira Colony assessed 200

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 418 people = 10450 litres/day
Available water supply : One hand-pump in Thiventharapuram and one hand-pump in Indira Colony
Structures : None in Indira Colony. Thiventharapuram - details of structures not known 

The villages are not connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Indira Colony

Pump a total of 11m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a tank serving 218 people in Indira Colony

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 200 people (assessed) in Thiventharapuram 

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.03 (Kurumbapatty)

Inhabitants : 437 households, 2185 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 2185 people = 54625 litres/day
Available water supply : One overhead tank and 6 hand-pumps
Structures : There is a market centre. 

The village is connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one wells in Kurumbapatty

Pump a total of 60m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 8 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of seven pumps dedicated to a tank serving 300 people

One pump dedicated to a tank serving the market.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 2400Wp ( being 32 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Eight solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Eight tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.04 (Anna Nagar)

Inhabitants : 50 households, 284 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 284 people = 7100 litres/day
Available water supply : One hand-pump
Structures : None

The village is not connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Anna Nagari.

Pump a total of 8m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 1 Solar Spring solar pump dedicated to a tank serving 284 people

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 300Wp ( being 4 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
One solar pumps with accompanying electronics
One tank on tank support
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.05 (Vallampatty)

Inhabitants : 360 households, 1824 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 1824 people = 45600 litres/day
Available water supply : One overhead tank and 3 hand-pumps
Structures : There is one primary school 

The village is not connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Vallampatty.

Pump a total of 60m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 8 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of seven pumps dedicated to a tank serving 260 people

One pump dedicated to a tank serving the primary school.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Each well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 2400Wp ( being 32 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Eight solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Eight tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.06 (Valasu)

Inhabitants : 150 households, 746 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 746 people = 18650 litres/day
Available water supply : One overhead tank and 1 hand-pump
Structures : None 

The village is connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Valasu.

Pump a total of 20m3 water per day.

Each well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of eleven pumps dedicated to a tank serving about 370 people

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.07 (Mamarathupatty and Puliyampatti)

Inhabitants : 210 households, 1061 population of which 925 in Mamaruthapatty and 136 in Puliyampatti.

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 1061 people = 26525 litres/day
Available water supply :  In Mamarathupatty : One overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps. In Puliyampatty :One overhead tank and three hand-pumps

Structures : None 

Mamarathupatty is not connected to the electricity grid. The smaller village, Puliyampatti, on the other hand, is connected.

Dig one well in Mamarathupatty.

Pump a total of 30m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 4 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of three pumps dedicated to a tank serving about 300 people in Mamarathupatty; one pump dedicated to a tank serving 136 people in Pulyampatti. 

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1200Wp ( being 16 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Four solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Four tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.8 (Karadupatty)

Inhabitants : 85 households, 432 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 432 people = 10800 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 hand-pump
Structures : None 

The village is connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Karadupatty.

Pump a total of 12m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps dedicated to a tank serving 216 people

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.09 (Lingapuram and Andiyapuram)

Inhabitants : 50 households, 471 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 471 people = 11775 litres/day
Available water supply : 2 hand-pumps in Lingapuram and 3 hand-pumps in Andiyapuram
Structures : None

Neither village is connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Lingpuram.

Pump a total of 12m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps, one dedicated to a tank serving 246 people in Lingapuram, and one dedicated to a tank serving 225 people in Andiyapuram

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.

Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.10 (Alamapatty, Ellaikattupatty, Gopalapuram, Ananda Nagar, Anathanagar)

Inhabitants : 425 households, 2126 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 2126 people = 53150 litres/day of which: Alampatty 1325; Ellaikattupatty 232, Gopalapuram 185, Ananda Nagar 184, and Anathanagar assessed at 200

Available water supply : Alampatty :  One overhead tank and 4 hand-pumps; Ellaikattupatty : 5 hand-pumps; Gopalapuram : unknown; Ananda Nagar : unknown; Anathanagar : unknown

Structures : There is one primary school in Alampatty

Alamapatty, Ellaikattupatty, and Ananda Nagar are all connected to the electricity grid. Gopalapuram is not conneced. The status of Anathanagar is unknown.

Dig one well in Alampatty.

Pump a total of 60m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 8 Solar Spring solar pumps.

Each of three tanks in Alampatty dedicated to a tank serving 440 people, one tank in Ellaikattupatty serving 232 people, one tank in Gopalpuram serving 185 people, one tank in Ananda Nagar serving 184 people, and one tank in Anathanagar serving assessed 200 people.

One pump dedicated to a tank serving the primary school.in Alampatty

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Thewell system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 2400Wp ( being 32 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Eight solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Eight tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.11 (Pandiyanur and Puthupatty)

Inhabitants : 215 households, 1077 population of which 625 in Puthupatty and 452 in Pandiyanur

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 1077 people = 26925 litres/day
Available water supply : 

In Pandyianur, 1 overhead tank and 3 hand-pumps; in Puthupatty 6 hand-pumps
Structures : There is one primary school in Puthupatty

Both villages are connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one wells in Puthupatty

Pump a total of 30m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps dedicated to a tank serving 226 people in Pandiyanur

Each of two pumps dedicated to a tank serving 310 people in Puthupatty

One pump dedicated to a tank serving the primary school in Puthupatty

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.12 (Sadayampatti, Karupukovilpatty, and Pitchampatti)

Inhabitants : 310 households, 1567 population of which 1323 in Sadayampatty, 112 in Karupukovilpatty, and 132 in Pitchampatty

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 1567 people = 39175 litres/day
Available water supply : 

In Sadayampatti : One overhead tank and 3 hand-pumps
In Karupukovilpatty : not known

In Pitchampatti : 2 hand-pumps

Structures : There is one primary school in Sadayampatty

Sadayampatty and Pitchampatty  are both connected to the electricity grid. Karupukovilpatty is not.

Dig one well in Sadayampatti.

Pump a total of 45m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 6 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of three pumps dedicated to a tank serving 441 people in Sadayampatti;

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 112 people in Karupukovilpatty

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 132 people in Pitchampatty

One pump dedicated to a tank serving the primary school in Sadayampatty

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1800Wp ( being 24 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Six solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Six tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.13 (Alagunachipuram and Kuppayure)

Inhabitants : (assessed) 70 households, 350 population (assessed) of which 175 in Alagunachipuram (assessed) and 175 in Kuppayure (assessed)

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 350 people = 8750 litres/day
Available water supply : Alagunachippuram : 1 hand-pump; Kuppayure : 2 hand-pumps
Structures : Assumed none

The villages are assumed not to be connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Alagunachippuram

Pump a total of 10m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a tank serving 175 people in Alagunachippuram

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 175 people in Kuppayure.

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.14 (J.J.Colony and Thirumalaikenim P)

Inhabitants (assessed) : 70 households, 350 population (175 assessed in J.J.Colony and 175 assessed in Thirumalaikenim P)

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 350 people = 8750 litres/day
Available water supply : J.J.Colony : 2 hand-pumps; Thirumalaikenim : 1 hand-pump
Structures : Assumed none. 

It is assumed that both of these villages ares connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in the J.J. Colony, or between the two villages.

Pump a total of 10m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a tank serving 175 people in J.J.Colony; one pump dedicated to a tank serving 175 people in Thirumalaikenim P

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.1 (Chenkurchi Panchyat) 

2.8.2.1.15 (Gurunathampuram, Semmettakulam, Eramulkuttu, MGR Colony, MetuMetukalam, V Puthur)

These villages are not marked on the map. Assessed by way of reserve 180 households, 900 population divided equally amongst the villages.

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 500 people = 18750 litres/day
Available water supply :  Gurunathapuram : 1 hand-pump; Semmettukalam : 2 hand-pumps; V.Puthur : 1 hand-pump. Others unknown - assumed 1 hand-pump

Structures : MGR Colony, MetuMetukalam, Gurunathampuram, Eramulkuttu have no structures. Semmettakulam and V Puthur are assumed to have no structures.

MGR Colony, MetuMetukalam, Gurunathampuram, Eramulkuttu are not connected to the electricy grid. Semmettakulam and V Puthur are assumed not to be connected

The villages are assumed to account for one well.

Pump a total of 20m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 6 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of the six pumps is assumed dedicated to a tank serving 150 people

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1800Wp ( being 24 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Six solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Six tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.2 Kambiliampatti Panchyat

2.8.2.2.01 (Kambiliayampatti)

Inhabitants : 570 households, 2854 population.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 71350 litres/day
Available water supply : 2 wells, 1 square tank, 1 overhead tank and 6 hand-pumps.

There are also:

1 Primary school, 1 high school, one (private) clinic and 3 temples
The village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig two wells.

Pump a total of 80m3 water per day.

Each well will be fitted with 6 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 10 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 250 users.
One system for each of the two schools
Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to each well.
Review needs of clinic and temples.

Each well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1800Wp ( being 24 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Six solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Six tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.02 (Kuthampatti)

Inhabitants : 250 households, 1245 population.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 31150 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 overhead tank and 5 hand-pumps.

There are also:

1 Primary school and 1 temples
The village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well.

Pump a total of 35m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 6 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 5 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 250 users.
One system for the school.
Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the temple.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1800Wp ( being 24 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Six solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Six tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage 

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.03 (Akkaraipatti)

Inhabitants : 250 households, 1320 population.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 33000 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps.

There are also three temples.
The village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well.

Pump a total of 35m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 5 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 260 users.
Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage 

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.04 (Narivilapatty and Sukkampatty)

Inhabitants :
Sukkampatty 125 households, 623 population.

Narivilapatty 117 households, 585 population Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 1208 people = 30200 litres/day
Available water supply :
Sukkampatty : 1 square tank and 3 hand-pumps.
Narivilapatty : 1 overhead tank, 1 square tank, and 2 hand-pumps

There are also:
In Sukkampatty : 1 Primary school and 2 temples
In Narivilapatty : 1 primary school and 2 temples
The villages are both connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Sukkampatty.

Pump a total of 35m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 6 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 4 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 300 users, of which 2 in Sukkampatty and 2 in Narivilapatty.
One system for the school in Sukkampatty and 1 for the school in Narivilapatty.
Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the four temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1800Wp ( being 24 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Six solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Six tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage 

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.05 (Kuyavanputhur and Erenchettiyur)

Inhabitants :
Kuyavanputhur 88 households, 442 population.
Erenchettiyur 27 households, 136 population
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 578 people = 14450 litres/day
Available water supply :
Kuyanaputhur - not known.
Erenchettiyur - 1 square tank and 1 hand-pump

There is also a temple in Kuyanaputhur
Kuyavanputhur is connected to the electricity network. Erenchettiyur is not.

Dig one well in Erenchettiyur

Pump a total of 15m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 220 users in Kuyabaputhur
One pump dedicated to a water tank for the people in Erenchettiyur
Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the temple in Kuyanaputhur.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 900Wp ( being 12 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Three solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Three tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.06 (Andiyapatti)

Inhabitants :428 households, 2140 population.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 53500 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 well and 5 hand-pumps.

There are also:

1 Primary school and 4 temples
The village is not connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well.

Pump a total of 60m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 8 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 7 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 305 users.
One system for the school.
Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the 4 temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 2400Wp ( being 32 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Eight solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Eight tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage 

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.07 (Chinnakattupatty and Nochasatipatty)

Inhabitants :
Chinnakattupatty : 125 households, 632 population.
Nochasatipattu : 22 households, 112 population
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 744 people = 18600 litres/day
Available water supply :
Chinnakattupatty : 1 square tank and 4 hand-pumps
Nochasatipatty : not known

There is also 1 temple in each of the villages
Neither village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Chinnakattupatty.

Pump a total of 20m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 3 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 2 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 315 users in Chinnakattupatty.
One pump deidated to a water tank supplying 112 users in Nochasatipatty
Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the two temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 900Wp ( being 12 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Three solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Three tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage 

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.08 (Annakulamputhur, Sheelamunthunayakoor,Mettupatti, and Erumanakanpatty)

Inhabitants : 170 households, 838 population.
Extra water supply required @ 25l for 838 people = 20950 litres/day
Available water supply :
Annakulamputhur : 1 square tank and 1 hand-pump.
Sheelamunthunayakoor : 1 square well and 1 hand-pump
Mettupatti : 1 well and 1 hand-pump
Erumanakanpatti : 1 square well and one hand-pump

There are also:
Annakulamputhur : 1 temple
Sheelamunthunayakoor : 2 temples
Mettupatti : 1 temple
Erumanakanpatty : no structures
Of the four villages only Annakulumputhur is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Sheelamunthunayakoor

Pump a total of 25m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 4 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 4 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying:
about 185 users in Annakulamputhur.
about 286 users in Sheelamunthunayakoor
about 182 users in Mettupatti
about 185 users in Erumanakanpatty
Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1200Wp ( being 14 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Four solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Four tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage 

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.09 (Thambinayakanoor, Pommairettykalam, and Puthukalingpatty

Inhabitants : unknown : assumed 80 households, 400 population.
Assumed extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 400 = 10000 litres/day
Available water supply : assumed none

It is assumed there are no other structures
It is assumed neither village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in the larger of the two villages.

Pump a total of 12m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 3 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 3 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying up to 200 users, one in each village.
Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 900Wp ( being 12 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Three solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Three tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage 

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.10 (Sittagoundanur and Sinnapatty)

Inhabitants : 70 households, 363 population, being 115 people in Sittagounadur and 248 in Sinapatty.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 363 people = 9075 litres/day
Available water supply :
Sittagounadur : 1 hand-pump
Sinnapatty : 1 square well and two hand-pumps

There are also two temples in Sinnapatty
Neither village is connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Sinapatty.

Pump a total of 10m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying about 115 users in Sittagounadur.
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying about 248 users in Sinapatty.
Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.11 (Ammapatty)

Inhabitants : 375 households, 1884 population
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 1884 people = 47100 litres/day
Available water supply : 2 wells and 3 hand-pumps

There are also one primary school and two temples.
The village is not connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Ammapatty

Pump a total of 50m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 8 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of seven pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 270 users.
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying the school.
Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 2400Wp ( being 32 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Eight solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Eight tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage 

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.12 (Karuppakovilpatty and Thirumalaikenni)

Inhabitants : 45 households, 234 population, being 120 people in Karuppakovilpatty and 114 in Thirumalaikenni.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 234 people = 5850 litres/day
Available water supply :
Karuppakovilpatty : 1 hand-pump
Thirumalaikenni : 1 well and one hand-pumps

There is one temple in each of the villages.
Neither village is connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Karuppakovilpatty.

Pump a total of 10m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying about 120 users in Karuppakovilpatti.
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying about 114 users in Thirumalaikenni.
Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage 

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.13 (Nilapatty, Nilapattyputhur,and Pothakanavaipatty)

Inhabitants : 250 households, 1285 population, being:
842 in Nilapatty
267 in Nilapattyputhur
176 in Pohtakanavaitpatty
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 1285 people = 32125 litres/day
Available water supply :
Nilapatty : 1 well, 1 square well, 2 hand-pumps
Nilapattyputhur : 1 well and one hand-pump
Pohtakanavaipatty : 1 well and 2 hand-pumps

Structures : There is one school and two temples in Nilapatty
There are no structures at all in Nilapattyputhur
There is one temple in Pothakanavaipatty
None of the villages is connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Nilapatty.

Pump a total of 35m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps dedicated to a tank serving 421 people in Nilapatty
One pump dedicated to a tank serving 267 users in Nilaputhur
One pump dedicated to a tank serving 176 users in Pothkanavaipatty
Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.2 (Kambiliampatti Panchyat) 

2.8.2.2.14 (Kattupatty)

Inhabitants : 460 households, 2316 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day for 2316 people = 57900 litres/day
Available water supply : One overhead tank, two wells and three hand-pumps

Structures : There is primary school and two temples

The village is not connected to the electricity grid.

Dig one well in Kattupatty.

Pump a total of 60m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 7 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of six pumps dedicated to a tank serving 386 people
One pump dedicated to a tank serving the primary school
Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
Review needs of the temples.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 2100Wp ( being 28 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Seven solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Seven tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.01 (Siluvathur, Karupusamy Nagar, J.J.Nagar)

Inhabitants : 360 households, 2162 population of which 1824 in Sluvathur, 153 in Karupusamy Nagar and 185 in J.J.Nagar

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 54050 litres/day
Available water supply : Siluvathur : 4 wells, 4 overhead tanks and 3 hand-pumps; in Karupusamy Nagar 1 hand-pump; in J.J.Nagar 1 hand-pump

There are also:

1 Middle school, one public health clinic
Siluvathur andKarupusamy Nagar are both connected to the electricity network. J.J.Nagar is not.

Dig two wells, if possible one to the North West of Siluvathur and one to the South.

Pump a total of 60m3 water per day.

Each well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 5 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 360 users in Siluvathur.
One system for each of the school
One pump to a dedicated water tank in Karupusamy Nagar and one pump to a dedicated water tank in J.J.Nagar

Two pumping systems dedicated to the clinic. If the clinic is already well supplied, these two tanks can be made available to the public in Siluvathur.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-systems next to the wells.

Each well systems equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.02 (Velankanipuram and Paraikulam)

Inhabitants : 80 households, 400 population of which 185 in Velankanipuram and 215 in Paraikulam.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 10000 litres/day
Available water supply : Velankanipuram : 1 hand-pump. Paraikulam also has one hand-pump.

There are no structures in either village.

Neither village is connected to the electricity network. 

Dig one well in Paraikulam.

Pump a total of 10m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying about 215 users in Paraikulam.
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying 185 people in Velankanipuram

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.03 (Kattabomman Nagar and P.K.Puthur)

Inhabitants : 100 households, 509 population of which 164 in Kattabomman Nagar and 345 in P.K.Puthur.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 12725 litres/day
Available water supply : In Kattabomman Nagar : 1 hand-pump. In P.K.Puthur, one overhead tank and 3 hand-pumps

There is no structures

P.K.Puthure is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Kattabomman Nagar.

Pump a total of 15m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying 165 users in Kattambomman Nagar

One pump supplying a tank in P.K.Puthur  for 345 users.

Single reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.04 (Ayyakutipatty and Santhaipatty)

Inhabitants : 85 households, 426 population, of which 241 in Ayyakutipatty and 185 in Santhaipatty.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 10650 litres/day
Available water supply : In Ayyakutipatty  1 overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps. In Santhaipatty : 1 hand-pump

There are no structures in either village.

Neither village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well Ayyakutipatty.

Pump a total of 12m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying  241 users in Ayyakutipatty.
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying 185 users in Santhaipatty

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.05 (Athigaripatty)

Inhabitants : 170 households, 845 population.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 21125 litres/day
Available water supply : 6 wells, 1 overhead tank and 5 hand-pumps.

There are also:

1 primary school and a market place

The village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Athigaripatty

Pump a total of 25m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 3 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 280 users.
One system for the school and one system for the market place

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.06 (Vangamanuthu)

Inhabitants : 170 households, 845 population.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 21125 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps.

There are also:

1 high school and a church

The village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Vangamanuthu

Pump a total of 25m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 4 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 3 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 280 users.
One system for the high school 

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1200Wp ( being 16 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Four solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Four tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.07 (Kothapulipatty, Pommanathapuram and Thopur)

Inhabitants : 180 households, 923 population of which 642 in Kothapulipatty, 136 in Pommanathapuram and 145 in Thopur.
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 23075 litres/day
Available water supply : Kothapulipatty : 2 overhead tanks and 1 hand-pump. Pommanathapuram : 1 hand-pump. Thopur : 1 overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps.

There is also1 primary school. 

Kothapulipatty and Thopur are both connected to the electricity network. Pommanathapuram is not.

Dig one well in Kothapulipatty

Pump a total of 30m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of 2 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 321 users in Kothapulipatty.
One system for the school in Kothapulipatty.

One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying about 136 users in Pommanathapuram.

Each of 2 pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying about 145 users in Thopur.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.08 (Kambarpatty and Chinnappanayakanpatty)

Inhabitants : 180 households, 597 population of which 475 in Kambarpatty 122 in Chinnappanayakanpatty
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 11875 litres/day
Available water supply : Kambarpatty  1 overhead tank and 4 hand-pumps. Chinnappanayakanpatty : 1 hand-pump.  hand-pumps 

There is 1 primary school in Kambarpatty.

Both villages are connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Kambarpatty.

Pump a total of 15m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 3 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying  475 users in Kambarpatty
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplyinh 122 users in Chinnappanayakanpatty

One system for the primary school in Kambarpatty

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 900Wp ( being 12 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Three solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Three tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.09 (Pethagoundanpatty and Valluvan Puthur)

Inhabitants : 130 households, 674 population of which 364 in Pethagoundanpatty 310 in Valluvan Puthur
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 16850 litres/day
Available water supply : Pethagoundanpatty : 1 overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps. Valluvan Puthur : 2  hand-pumps 

There is 1 primary school in Pethagoundanpatty.

Both villages are connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Pethagoundanpatty.

Pump a total of 20m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 3 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying  364 users in Pethagoundanpatty
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplyinh 310 users in Valluvan Puthur

One system for the primary school in Pethagoundanpatty.

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 900Wp ( being 12 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Three solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Three tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.3 Siluvathur Panchyat

2.8.2.3.10 (Kallanputhur and Palanimanagaram)

Inhabitants : 80 households, 422 population of which 226 in Kallanputhur and 196 in Palinamanagaram
Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 10550 litres/day
Available water supply : Kallanputhur : 1 overhead tank and 1 hand-pump. Palinamanagaram : 1 minitank and 1 hand-pump 

There are no services in either village.

Both villages are connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Palinamanagaram

Pump a total of 12m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying  226 users in Kallanputhur

One pump dedicated to a water tank supplyinh 196 users in Palinamanagaram

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.4 Madur Panchyat

2.8.2.4.01 (Madur and Kalathupatty)

Inhabitants : 100 households, 803 population, of which 435 in Madur and 368 in Kalathupatty

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 20075 litres/day
Available water supply : Madur : 1 overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps.  Kalathupatty : 1 overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps.

There are no schools. There is a temple in Madur and a church in Kalathupatty.

Madur is connected to the electricity network. Kalathupatty is not connected.

Dig one well in Madur

Pump a total of 20m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pump
One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying  435 users in Madur

One pump dedidcated to a water tank supplying 368 users in Kalathupatty.

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
One solar pump with accompanying electronics
One tank on tank support
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.4 Madur Panchyat

2.8.2.4.02 (Pugalipatty and Aluvanur)

Inhabitants : 215 households, 1075 population of which 925 in Pugalipatty and 150 (assessed) in Aluvanur

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 26825 litres/day
Available water supply : Pugalipatty : 20 hand-pumps.  Aluvunur : 1 hand-pump

There is a high school and a church in Pugalipatty. Situation Aluvanur not known.

Pugalipatty is connected to the electricity network. Aluvanur believed not to be connected.

Dig one well in Pugalipatty

The well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pump
Each of three pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying  300 users in Pugalipatty

One pump system dedicated to the high school in Pugalipatty.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Four solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Four tanks on tank support
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.4 Madur Panchyat

2.8.2.4.03 (Maniyagaranpatty)

Inhabitants : 100 households, 526 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 13150 litres/day
Available water supply :  1 overhead tank and 5 hand-pumps. 

There is a primary school and a church

The village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Maniyagaranpatty

Pump a total of 15m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 3 Solar Spring solar pump3
Each of two pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying  263 users

One pump system dedicated to the primary school.

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 900Wp ( being 12 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
One solar pump with accompanying electronics
One tank on tank support
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.4 Madur Panchyat

2.8.2.4.04 (Madupatty)

Inhabitants : 95 households, 482 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 12050 litres/day
Available water supply :  1 overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps. 

There are no schools. There is one church.

The village is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Madurpatty

Pump a total of 12m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each pump dedicated to a water tank supplying  240 users

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.

The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
One solar pump with accompanying electronics
One tank on tank support
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.5 Kottai Panchyat

2.8.2.5.01 (Kottai, Petarikottam, and reserve for unnamed location)

Inhabitants : 170 households, 856 population of which 556 in Kottai, estimated 150 in Petarikottam, estimated 150 in unnamed village

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 21400 litres/day
Available water supply :  Kottam : 1 overhead tank and 5 hand-pumps.  Petarikottam : 1 hand-pump. Unnamed village : estimated 1 hand-pump.

There is a primary school and a public health centre in Kottai. Other villages : unknown, believed no services

Kottam is connected to the electricity network. Other villages believed not to be connected.

Dig one well in Kottai

Pump a total of 30m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 8 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying  275 users in Kottai

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 150 in Petarikottam. 

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 150 users (estimated) in the unnamed village.

One pump system serving the primary school, and two separate pump systems supplying the health centre if this needs clean water supplies.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 2400Wp ( being 32 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Eight solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Eight tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.5 Kottai Panchyat

2.8.2.5.02 (Markampatty, Ayyavuservaikottam, Ramamurthikottam, Karupannapurum and Nuthu Nagar)

Inhabitants : 400 households, 2086 population of which 1476 in Markampattyi, 160 in Muthu Nagar, estimated 150 in Ayyavuservaikottam, estimated 150 in Karupannapurum and estimated 150 in Ramamurthikottam

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 52150 litres/day
Available water supply :  Markampatty: 2 overhead tanks and 2 hand-pumps.  Muthu Nagar : one mini tank and 1 hand-pump. Ayyavuservaikottam : 1 hand-pump. Ramamuthikottam : 1 hand-pump. Karupannapuram : 1 hand-pump.

There is a middle school and a sub public health centre in Markampattyi. Other villages : unknown, believed no services

Markampatty is connected to the electricity network. Other villages believed not to be connected.

Dig two wells in Markampatty, one towards the west and one towards the east.

Pump a total of 60m3 water per day.

Each well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of three pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying  450 users in Markampatty.

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 160 users in Muthu Nagar. 

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 150 users (estimated) in Ayyavuservaikottam.

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 150 users (estimated) in Ramamurthikottam.

One pump dedicated to a tank serving 150 users (estimated) in Karupannapuram

One pump system serving the middle school, and two separate pump systems supplying the health centre if this needs clean water supplies.

Each well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.5 Kottai Panchyat

2.8.2.5.03 (Ellapatty)

Inhabitants : 95 households, 475 population 

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 11875 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 mini tank and 4 hand-pumps.  

There are no services.

Ellapatty is connected to the electricity network. 

Dig one well in Ellapatty

Pump a total of 12m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 1 Solar Spring solar pump
The pump dedicated to a water tank supplying the  475 users

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 300Wp ( being 4 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
One solar pump with accompanying electronics
One tank on tank support
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.5 Kottai Panchyat

2.8.2.5.04 (Avrampatty)

Inhabitants : 270 households, 1367 population 

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 34175 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 mini tank and 1 hand-pump.  

There are no services.

Avrampatty is connected to the electricity network. 

Dig one well in Avrampatty

Pump a total of 35m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each pump dedicated to a water tank supplying  270 users

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.5 Kottai Panchyat

2.8.2.5.05 (V,S.K.Kurumpatty)

Inhabitants : 250 households, 1260 population 

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 31500 litres/day
Available water supply : 2 wells and 4 hand-pumps

There is a primary school.

Kurumpatty  is connected to the electricity network. 

Dig one well in Kurumpatty

Pump a total of 35m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 5 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of four pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying  315 users

One pump system supplying the school.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1500Wp ( being 20 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.5 Kottai Panchyat

2.8.2.5.06 (Jakkamanapatty and Valasupatty)

Inhabitants : 220 households, 1091 population of which 747 in Jakkamanpatty and 344 in Valasupatty

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 27275 litres/day
Available water supply : Jakkamanapatty : 1 overhead tank and 3 hand-pumps. Valasupatty : 1 overhead tank and 2 hand-pumps.  

There are no services.

Both villages are connected to the electricity network. 

Dig one well in Jakkamanapatty

Pump a total of 30m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 3 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps in Jakkamanapatty dedicated to a water tank supplying  370 users

One pump in Valasupatty dedicated to a water tank supplyinh 344 users,

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 900Wp ( being 12 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Five solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Five tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.5 Kottai Panchyat

2.8.2.5.07 (Silvarpatty, Puthupatty and Ellukottam)

Inhabitants : 280 households, 1412 population of which 840 in Silvarpatty, 362 in Puthupatty and 210 in Ellukottam

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 35300 litres/day
Available water supply : Silvarpatty : 2 overhead tanks and 5 hand-pumps. Puthupatty : 1 mini tank and 1 hand-pump.  Ellukottam : 1 overhead tank and one hand-pump.

There is a middle school in Silvarpatty. No services in Puthupatty or Ellukottam.

Silvarpatty and Puthupatty are connected to the electricity network. Ellukottam is not.

Dig one well in Silvarpatty.

Pump a total of 40m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 6 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps in Silvarpatty dedicated to a water tank supplying  420 users

Each of two pumps in Puthupatty dedicated to a water tank supplying 180 users

One pump system in Ellukottam supplying 210 users.

One pump system for the school in Silvarpatty.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1800Wp ( being 24 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Six solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Six tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.5 Kottai Panchyat

2.8.2.5.08 (Vailalipatty and Puthur)

Inhabitants : 160 households, 837 population of which 424 in Vailalipatty and 413 in Puthur

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 20925 litres/day
Available water supply : Vailalipatty : 1 overhead tank and 1 hand-pump. Puthur : 1 overhead tank and 1 hand-pump.  

There are no services.

Both villages are connected to the electricity network. 

Dig one well in Vailalipatty

Pump a total of 25m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 4 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps in Vailalipatty dedicated to a water tank supplying  212 users

Each of two pumps in Puthut dedicated to a water tank supplyinh 205 users,

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1200Wp ( being 16 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Four solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Four tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.5 Kottai Panchyat

2.8.2.5.09 (Small villages not shown on map)

Inhabitants : 160 households, 808 population of which :

 141 in Ramapuram; 112 in Shanmugapuram; 105 in Valliyapuram; 112 in Lakshmanapura, 114 in Swamiyapuram, 119 in Palaniappanagar, and 105 in Indira Nagar

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 20200 litres/day
Available water supply :  Not known.

There are no services in these villages .

All villages are connected to the electricity network except for Palaniappanagar and Indira Nagar. 

Pump a total of 25m3 water per day.

Reserve : 7 Solar Spring solar pumps being one pumping system for each community.

2.8.2.6 Rasakapatti Panchyat

2.8.2.6.01 (Rasakapatti and Karlakadu)

Inhabitants : 320 households, 1598 population of which 1484 in Rasakapatti and 114 in Kalarkadu

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 39950 litres/day
Available water supply : Rasakapatti : 1 overhead tank and 8 hand-pumps. Kalarkadu : 2 hand-pumps.  

There is a public health centre and a mosque in Rasakapatti.

Rasakapatti is connected to the electricity network.  Kalarkadu is not connected.

Dig one well in Rasakapatti.

Pump a total of 40m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 8 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of five pumps in Rasakapatti dedicated to a water tank supplying  300 users

One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying 114 users in Kalarkadu,

Two pump systems dedicated to the public health centre, if needed.

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1800Wp ( being 24 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Eight solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Eight tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.6 Rasakapatti Panchyat

2.8.2.6.02 (Pannaipatty)

Inhabitants : 160 households, 820 population.

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 20500 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 overhead tank and 4 hand-pumps.

There are two temples.

Pannaipatty is connected to the electricity network.

Dig one well in Panaipatty.

Pump a total of 25m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of three pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying  410 users

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Eight solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Eight tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.6 Rasakapatti Panchyat

2.8.2.6.03 (Kalupatty, Pusaripatty and Maddankadu)

Inhabitants : 200 households, 1020 population of which 685 in Kalupatty, 185 in Pusaripatty,  and (estimated) 150 in Maddankadu.

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 25500 litres/day
Available water supply : Pusaripatty : 1 hand-pump. Kalupatty : one overhead tank and 4 hand-pumps. Maddankadu : 1 hand-pump  

There are two temples in Kalupatti and one temple in Pusaripatti.

Kalupatti and Pusaripatti are connected to the electricity network.  It is not known whether Maddankadu is connected.

Dig one well in Kalupattyi.

Pump a total of 25m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 4 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of two pumps in Kalupatty dedicated to a water tank supplying  340 users

One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying 185 users in Pusaripatty.

One pump dedicated to a water tank supplying 150 users in Maddankadu.

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1200Wp ( being 16 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Four solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Four tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.6 Rasakapatti Panchyat

2.8.2.6.04 (Thithampatty)

Inhabitants : 250 households, 1235 population 

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 30875 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 overhead tank and 6 hand-pumps. 

There is one temple.

Thithampatty is connected to the electricity network.  

Dig one well in Thithampatty.

Pump a total of 30m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 4 Solar Spring solar pumps
Each of four pumps dedicated to a water tank supplying  300 users

Triple unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 1200Wp ( being 16 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Four solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Four tanks on tank supports
A triple hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.6 Rasakapatti Panchyat

2.8.2.6.05 (Kumarapalayam)

Inhabitants : 95 households, 482 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 12050 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 overhead tank and 4 hand-pumps. 

Kumarapalayam is connected to the electricity network.  

Dig one well in Kumarapalayami.

Pump a total of 12m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 1 Solar Spring solar pump

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 300Wp ( being 4 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
One solar pump with accompanying electronics
One tank on tank support
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.6 Rasakapatti Panchyat

2.8.2.6.06 (Laksminakanpatty)

Inhabitants : 110 households, 536 population

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 13400 litres/day
Available water supply : 1 overhead tank and 4 hand-pumps. 

Laksminakanpatty connected to the electricity network.  

There are two temples.

Dig one well in Laksminakanpatty.

Pump a total of 15m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 2 Solar Spring solar pumps each dedicated to a tank serving 265 users.

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 600Wp ( being 8 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Two solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Two tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage

2.8.2.6 Rasakapatti Panchyat

2.8.2.6.07 (Thamkulathupatty, Margimadu, Metkumedu)

Inhabitants : 90 households, 450 population (estimated) of which 165 in Thamkulathupatty, 135 in Metkumedu, and estimated 150 in Margimadu.

Extra water supply required @ 25l per day = 11250 litres/day
Available water supply : Thamkulathupatty : 2 hand-pumps.  Metkumedu : 3 hand-pumps. Margimadu : unknown

Thamkulathupatty is connected to the electricity network.  The other villages are not.

Dig one well in Thamkulthupatty.

Pump a total of 12m3 water per day.

The well will be fitted with 3 Solar Spring solar pumps
One system connected to a dedicated tank in Thamkulathupatty, serving 165

One system connected to a dedicated tank in Metkumedu esrving 135

One system connected to a dedicated tank in Margimadu erving an estimated 150 users.

Single unit reserve hand-pump-system next to the well.
The well system equipped with:
The well itself
Photovoltaic panels for overall +/- 900Wp ( being 12 x 75Wp panels) and supports with multipoint hand-tracking system.
Three solar pumps with accompanying electronics
Three tanks on tank supports
A single hand-pump system as backup
A Hand-pump platform
Washing place
Fence or similar around PV panels
Paths for users
Sink pits for water drainage