NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.


Edition 02: 21 April, 2010.

Edition 17 : 20 November, 2013.


01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip. Int. Dev)



Quarter 1.






Study value : 04 points out of 18.

Indicative study time: 112 hours out of 504.


Study points are awarded only after the consolidated exam for Section A : Development Problems has been passed.



First block : Poverty and quality of life.


Study value : 02 points out of 18.

Indicative study time: 57 hours out of 504.


Study points are awarded only after the consolidated exam for Section A : Development Problems has been passed.



First block : Poverty and quality of life.


First Block : Section 1. Analysis of the causes of poverty. [26.50 hours]

First Block : Section 2. Services needed for a good quality of life.

First Block : Exam. [ 4 hours each attempt]



Block 1 of Section 1. Analysis of the causes of poverty. [26.50 hours]


Part 2 : In depth analysis of the causes of poverty. [14.00 hours]


01. In depth : definition of poverty.

02. In depth : some factors linked with poverty.

03. In depth : debts and subsidies.

04. In depth : financial leakages : food and water industries.

05. In depth : financial leakage : energy.

06. In depth : financial leakage : means of communication..

07. In depth : financial leakage : health and education.

08. In depth : financial leakage : theft of resources.

09. In depth : financial leakage : corruption.

10. In depth : the industry of poverty.


Report on Section 1 of Block 1 : [06.00 Hours]



Part 2 : In depth analysis of the causes of poverty. [14.00 hours]


02. In depth : some factors linked with poverty. (At least one hour)


Refer to slide :


02. Some factors linked with poverty.




“We are stealing the future, selling it in the present, and calling it gross domestic product.(P. Hawken, Healing or Stealing , Commencement address, University of Portland, 03 May, 2009).


Students interested in more information over the mounting criticism of orthodox economics should start with Michael Marien’s article New and Appropriate Economics for the 21st Century : A Survey of Critical Books, 1978-2013, published in Cadmus Journal, Vol, 1, Issue 5, October, 2012, Zagreb, October 2012. The article accompanies lists of leading resources, with a couple of sentences of basic information on each.


Do you know The system of National Accounts, 1993 (SNA) ?


See : Stiglitz J., Sen A, Fitoussi J-P (coordinators), Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress., Report for the President of France,, Paris, September 2009. Chapter 1 of the summary and chapter 1 of the body of this report provide a detailed analysis of  the term “gross domestic product (GDP)” as used in the system of National Accounts and its limitations.


Look at figure 1.6 on page 36 of Chapter 1 of  the report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress.


“The gross domestic product indicator by nature was not designed to and does not adequately reflect the happiness and well-being of a country.” (United Nations General Assembly, 65 th session of the United Nations Assembly, Resolution 65/309, 109th plenary meeting, 19th July, 2011. For full notes, see Happiness : towards a holistic approach to development (Report A/67/697) by the Secretary-General.


This was followed up by  the report A/67/697 by the Secretary-General, Agenda item 14, “Integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up

to the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic, social and related fields” 67th session of the United Nations Assembly, 16 January, 2013. The report summarises progress towards alternatives to the GDP system and, under point 55, encourages governments amongst  other things to :


(a) Consider using a broader concept of well-being, going beyond GDP and economic growth, adopting a new economic paradigm that encapsulates the social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainable development.


“(e) Ensure the minimum conditions for happiness for the majority of people in low-income countries, as well as excluded groups in middle- and high-income

countries, such as (i) access to food and basic services (ii) basic human rights and social protection and (iii) reduced inequalities, before pursuing broader well-being goals.


For some illustrations of  non-paid work by women. See The invisible work of women, Action Aid Senegal, Action Aid Regional office Nairobi, 2012.


“According to patriarchal economic models, production for sustenance is counted as "non-production." The transformation of value into disvalue, labour into non-labour, and knowledge into non-knowledge is achieved by the most powerful number that rules our lives, the patriarchal construct of GDP—Gross Domestic Product—which commentators have started to call the Gross Domestic Problem.” ( V. Shiva, Our violent economy is hurting women, Yes ! Magazine, Positive Futures Network, Bainbridge Island, January 18, 2013.)


“The SNA provides an incomplete picture of wealth because it includes only property  that generates private claims to future benefits. It therefore excludes parts of natural capital that is essential to human well-being but cannot be privately held (e.g. the atmosphere, the ocean.)” (Agarwala, M. et al,  Inclusive Wealth Report 2012 : Measuring progress towards sustainability , executive summary, p. xxvi, United Nations University Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (UNU-IDHP) and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, June 2012. ISBN 978-1-107-68339-6).


“Gross National Product counts air pollution and cigarette advertising, and ambulances to clear our highways of carnage.  It counts special locks for our doors and the jails for the people who break them.  It counts the destruction of the redwood and the loss of our natural wonder in chaotic sprawl.  It counts napalm and counts nuclear warheads and armored cars for the police to fight the riots in our cities.  It counts Whitman's rifle and Speck's knife, and the television programs which glorify violence in order to sell toys to our children.  Yet the gross national product does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education or the joy of their play.  It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the integrity of our public officials.  It measures neither our wit nor our courage, neither our wisdom nor our learning, neither our compassion nor our devotion to our country, it measures everything in short, except that which makes life worthwhile.” (Robert F. Kennedy, Speech University of Kansa, 18th March, 1968, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston, from collection of Robert F. Kennedy Speeches originally available at website . This extract accessed at 11 March, 2013.)


“…calculations [for the United States] show the GPI [Genuine Progress Indicator] at $4.4 trillion, compared with a GDP of nearly $10.8 trillion, implying that well over half of the economic activity in the United States that year was unsustainable and did not contribute to genuine progress.” (Talberth, J., A New Bottom Line for Progress., Chapter 2, 2008 State of the World : Innovations for a Sustainable Economy, The Worldwatch Institute,  p. 22. Washington, 2008.)


Food and Water Watch argue in And the Value of Nothing : Alternatives to Gross Domestic Product and the Financialization of Nature (Washington, November, 2012) that alternative systems like the GPI are also unacceptable because in reality they commoditise or “financialise” the commons by trying to give values to general natural resources such as forests, water, and the oceans. The organisation favours an ecological footprint approach which attempts to relate human consumption and use of the commons to the amount of earth surface available for each person, thereby avoiding some of the valuation issues.  See also the Global Footprint Net including the Footprint Factbook Africa 2009, Oakland 2009 (N.B. This is a 66 megabyte file), J. Kitzes (ed), Ecological Footprint Standards, (Global Footprint Network, Oakland, 2009) and J. Kitzes et al, Guidebook to the National Footprint Accounts ((Global Footprint Network, Oakland, 2008).


The global footprint of human beings, especially of those in industrialised countries, includes that of their hundreds of millions of domestic pets, which is enormous. On this neglected subject see L.  Schwartz, The Surprisingly Large Carbon Paw Print of Our Beloved, Polluting Pets, Alternet Environment News, Berkeley, 17 November, 2014.


As Vandana Shiva puts it : “In effect , “growth” measures the conversion of nature into cash, and commons into commodities.


“Thus nature’s amazing cycles of renewal of water and nutrients are defined into nonproduction. The peasants of the world,who provide 72% of the food, do not produce; women who farm or do most of the housework do not fit this paradigm of growth either. A living forest does not contribute to growth, but when trees are cut down and sold as timber, we have growth. Healthy societies and communities do not contribute to growth, but disease creates growth through, for example, the sale of patented medicine.


“Water available as a commons shared freely and protected by all provides for all. However, it does not create growth. But when Coca-Cola sets up a plant, mines the water and fills plastic bottles with it, the economy grows. But this growth is based on creating poverty – both for nature and local communities….


“As long as economics was focused on the household, it recognised and respected its basis in natural resources and the limits of ecological renewal. It was focused on providing for basic human needs within these limits. (How economic growth has become anti-life, Guardian, London, 01 November, 2013.) 


1. Opinion.


Which activities does the SNA measure? How much do you think  is attributed to women a) in  OECD countries; b) in emerging economies; c) in the least developed  countries?


 What are “monetised” activities ?


2. Opinion.


Which activities are NOT measured by the SNA? How much do you think  is attributed to women a) in  OECD countries; b) in emerging economies; c) in the least developed  countries?


These are “non-monetised” activities.


3. Opinion.


How many “monetised” activities do you think are truly “productive”?   


4. Opinion.


How many “non-monetised” activities do you think are truly “productive”?   


5. Opinion.


What conclusions can you draw from your notes?


Read Chapter 8  From global to local” of the book A Renewable World (Girardet H. and Mendonça M, Green Books, White River Junction, 2009 (The World Future Council) , which covers the consequences of globalisation of food production in detail.


A can of peas.


A 400 gr. can of peas is an example of a chain of production. You begin with the seeds. You plant and cultivate them. You make commercial agreements. The peas (280 gr. of them, the rest is water) are taken to a factory. They are cooked at the factory and put into a tin which also has to be manufactured. Metal for the tin has to be mined and treated or recycled from used materials. Paper for the label and packaging have to be manufactured. Trees for the paper have to be cultivated, cut, transported, and treated. Once the can of peas has been «produced » it is taken to and stored in a distribution point, sold, taken to a destination, stored again, sold again, transported again to a final destination. The cycle ends with …….. 280 gr. of  “consumable” peas, which might finally be offered for sale at the place the peas were originally cultivated.


Generally viewed, production of the can of peas may pass along a chain with hundreds of links. The peas might have been consumed at their point of production, or locally dried and conserved.. At the beginning of the chain, the peas were fresh.. At the end of the chain, they are by definition less fresh.


The question arises what the value added of the productive chain is. What has actually been  “produced” during the odyssey made by the peas ?


6. Research.


Think of another commercial product and set out the chain of activities for it to arrive at its final point of consumption or utilisation.


What are your conclusions?


The length of the production chain.


7. Opinion.


Considering the conclusions you have reached on the chain of production you have set out, what are the benefits of a long production chain? Who benefits from it? Which are the benefits of a short production chain? Who benefits from it?


Who controls the production chain at each of its links?


Marketing, packaging, and transport.


These are specific phases in the production chain odyssey of our poor peas.


8. Opinion.


What is the value added of these activities ? Who pays for them? How much time, energy and money do they cost?


The role of money


The peas will (often) have changed owner several times in the course of their long voyage.


9. Opinion.


Make a list of  [possible] moments of transfer of ownership of the product for which you researched the chain of production. Which operations were necessary at each transfer of ownership ?


How much money was needed for the first transfer? How much for the last one ?


Take the case of our can containing 280 gr. of peas.


10. Opinion.


What was their harvested  value when they were with the farmer?   What was their value at the end of the production chain?  


What are your  conclusions?


Girardet and Mendonça cite in their book  A Renewable World (details above) cite the one planet living concept of the  Bio Regional Development Group.


In their view, One Planet Living involves respecting the following principles:


01. Zero carbon.

02. Zero waste.

03. Sustainable  transport.

04. Sustainable materials.

05. Local and sustainable food.

06. Sustainable water.

07. Natural habitats and wild life.

08. Culture and heritage.

09. Equity, fair-trade, and local economy.

10. Health and happiness.


This course shows how integrated development projects make this possible.


 First  block : Poverty and quality of life.

Index : Diploma in Integrated Development  (Dip.Int.Dev)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Courses available.

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