NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.


Edition 02: 21 April, 2010.

Edition 07 : 13 November, 2013.


01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip. Int. Dev)



Quarter 1.






Study value : 04 points out of 18.

Indicative study time: 112 hours out of 504.


Study points are awarded only after the consolidated exam for Section A : Development Problems has been passed.



First block : Poverty and quality of life.


Study value : 02 points out of 18.

Indicative study time: 57 hours out of 504.


Study points are awarded only after the consolidated exam for Section A : Development Problems has been passed.



First block : Poverty and quality of life.


First Block : Section 1. Analysis of the causes of poverty. [26.50 hours]

First Block : Section 2. Services needed for a good quality of life.

First Block : Exam. [ 4 hours each attempt]



Block 1 of Section 1. Analysis of the causes of poverty. [26.50 hours]


Part 2 : In depth analysis of the causes of poverty. [14.00 hours]


01. In depth : definition of poverty.

02. In depth : some factors linked with poverty.

03. In depth : debts and subsidies.

04. In depth : financial leakages : food and water industries.

05. In depth : financial leakage : energy.

06. In depth : financial leakage : means of communication..

07. In depth : financial leakage : health and education.

08. In depth : financial leakage : theft of resources.

09. In depth : financial leakage : corruption.

10. In depth : the industry of poverty.


Report on Section 1 of Block 1 : [06.00 Hours]



Part 2 : In depth analysis of the causes of poverty. [14.00 hours]


07. In depth : Financial leakage : health and education. (At least one hour)


Look at the following slide:


07. Financial leakage : health and education.




Improved health


The following quotation from Part 1 :  07. Financial leakage : health and education is repeated:


«In the year 2000, Dr. J. Koplan, the director of the US-Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),pointed out that a person in 1900 could expect to live on average, to the age of 45. Today, in developed countries, life expectancy is nearly 80 years. Of the 35 years of lifespan people in developed countries have gained, only about five years have been attributed to advances in curative medicine. The other 30 years of lifespan have been attributed to improvements in sanitation, health education, the effect of vaccines, and other hygiene and public health advances. The retreat of the great levels of diseases was due to more urban improvements, superior nutrition, and public health and hygiene rather than to curative medicine (Koplan, 2000). (Towards Global Sustainable Health. ed. Exner M., Klein G et al, United Nations University, Institute for Environment Education and Human Society, Source 11/2008, p. 24.)


"The incidence of all of these infectious diseases was dropping very rapidly, starting in the 1930s. After World War II, the incidence continued to drop as living conditions improved. Clean water, central heating, the ability to bring oranges from Florida to the north in February so the children could get vitamin C--these are the factors that really affected people’s tendencies to come down with infectious diseases much more than vaccines. The vaccines might have added a little bit to that downward curve, but the curve was going down all the time anyway." Gary Null in discussion with Dr. Harris Coulter, April 6, 1995.

(For information on Gary Null see :


Look at the following graphs :


Graph United States mortality rate from measles, scarlet fever, typhoid, whooping cough, and diphtheria from 1900-1965 shows the reduction in five infectious illnesses in the United States between 1900 and 1965, and indicates the years the various vaccines were introduced for public use. (Source :


Graph United States life expectancy at birth, age 20, age 40, age 60 1900-1998 shows the increase in life expectancy in the United States in the 20th century. It shows that the most important variation is attributable to life expectancy at birth, the increase for which is shown to be 29 years. The difference for people having reached the age of 20 years is just 15.6 years. This shows the most important improvement refers to the childhood period, consonant with our knowledge of  child mortality due to illness and diarrhoea. Life expectancy of people aged 20 improved by just 6.3 years between 1950 and 1998.  The greatest increase in life expectancy in the United States therefore took place in the first 50 years of the century. Life expectancy continued to increase during the second half century, but the increase was limited and gradual. (Note : The graph was originally sourced at . This page is no longer available)


1. Opinion.


What is the relevance of the two graphs to development policies in your chosen area?


Health and local development.


Read the document public health structures which is part of the Model for integrated development projects.


During your Part 1 analysis 07.Financial leakage : health and education you prepared a list initiatives which you could carry out in your project area to “recover” the 30-35 years mentioned in the Koplan citation above.


2. Opinion.


Make a list of the structures you would need to carry the initiatives out.


The role of the pharmaceutical multinationals.


GAVI-The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation is an example public-private partnership foreseen in section 8 of the Declaration on Sustainable Development signed during the seventeenth plenary session of the World Conference on Sustainable Development signed in Johannesburg on the 4th of September  2002.


GAVI partners include the World Bank, the World Health Organisation, governments of some of the most powerful industrialised countries, vaccine research institutes in industrialised and emerging countries, pharmaceuticals multinationals producing vaccines, including Glaxo Smith Kline and Merck, and the  Gates Foundation which made an initial contribution of US$ 750.000.000 to the Fund in 1999. Nine Council members are described as “independent”, amongst whom the Chairperson, Mary Robinson.


GAVI controls a  US$ 3.700.000.000 fund (up to 2015).


GAVI’s main job is «immunisation of more children and adults in developing countries with a wider range of vaccines.’’ 43% percent of the vaccines used are produced in “emerging” countries. Who controls the factories in the emerging countries is not stated. In July 2008 President Bush approved a contribution of  $US to fight AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.


In his TED talk  Innovating to Zero ! (TED Conferences, New York, February, 2010) Bill Gates, (“I could pick a vaccine, which is something I love”) commented :


“The world today has 6.8 billion people. That's headed up to about nine billion. Now, if we do a really great job on new vaccines, health care, reproductive health services, we could lower that by, perhaps, 10 or 15 percent…”


J. Rappaport in his article “Depopulation Vaccine” in Kenya and Beyond, (Global Research, Centre for Research on Globalisation, Montreal, 10 November, 2014) sets out the history of proposals from the 1990s on to develop and promote the use of  “birth control” vaccines blocking the normal activity of a hormone called hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin B). A suggestion has been made that 2.3 million Kenyan women and girls may have been sterilized in 2014 without consultation this way under cover of an anti-tetanus inoculation campaign sponsored by the Kenyan government and administered by UNICEF and the World Health Organisation. Could this be the direction where heavily promoted vaccination campaigns in the name of “international development aid” are heading?


In July 2008 Président Bush approved an aid package for $US to fight AIDS,  malaria and tuberculosis. (Source : BBC News, 30 Juillet, 2008.)


3. Opinion.


What is the relationship  between the objectives of GAVI and your conclusions on the improvement of health in your chosen project area ?


Where do you think the most of the funds for vaccines and research will finish up ?


With US$ 51.700.000.000 it would be possible to provide a good quality of life for 500.000.000 people using the Model for Integrated Development you are studying.


4. Opinion.


What do you think about that statement.?




Costs of local education.


5. Research.


Who go to school in your chosen project area ? For how long ?


How many schools are public and how many private ?


How much do they cost ?


Who pays?


The following slides show goals 2 and 3 of the Declaration for Sustainable Development signed during the 17th plenary session of the World Conference on Sustainable Development at Johannesburg on  04 September 2002.


Millennium Goal on primary education.

Primary education solutions provided by integrated development projects.


6. Opinion.


Goal 2 is limited to primary education. Why?

What chance does your country have in the present situation to achieve the goal?


Millennium goal 3 on sex equality.

Solutions provided by integrated development projects.


7. Opinion.


What is the present situation in your country with respect to Millennium goal 3?

What is the current situation in your chosen area with respect to Millennium goal 3?


7. Education and local development.


Read the document : education sector initiatives provided under the Model for Integrated Development.


The main problem for carrying that programme out is the rapid availability of teachers.


How could this problem be solved for your chosen area ?

How could new teachers be provided with professional training ? 


The brain drain


9. Research.


Make notes on the brain drain from your chosen project area and from your country.


On the people who have abandoned your project area :


10. Research.


Who have gone away ?

What is your relationship if any with them?

Where have they gone?

Why did they leave ?


11. Research.


Contact some of them.


On what conditions would they be willing to return to your project area ?


 First  block : Poverty and quality of life.

Index : Diploma in Integrated Development  (Dip.Int.Dev)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Courses available.

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