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01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)


Edition 03: 11 August, 2010

Edition 05 : 22 April, 2011


Quarter 2.





Value: 06 points out of 18 .

Expected work load: 186 hours out of 504.


The points are finally awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for Section B : Solutions to the Problems.



Fourth block: The structures to be created.


Value : 03 points out of 18

Expected work load: 96 hours out of 504


The points are finally awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for Section B : Solutions to the Problems.



Fourth block: The structures to be created.


Section 5: Services structures. [24 hours]


20.00 hours : Service structures.

04.00 hours : Preparation report.


Fourth block : Exam. [ 4 hours per attempt]



20.00 hours : Service structures.


01. Drinking water structures : organisation.

02. Drinking water structures : technique.

03. Sanitation structures  : organisation.

04. Sanitation structures  : technique.

05. Waste recycling structures : organisation.

06. Waste recycling structures : technique.

07. Photovoltaic lighting structures.

08. Structures for the elimination of smoke in and around homes.

09. Education structures.

10. Health structures.


04.00 hours : Preparation report.



     Section 5: Services structures. [24 hours]


03. Sanitation structures  : organisation.


All humans have a fundamental right to water and sanitation. (The human right to water and sanitation,  declaration of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 26th July 2010.)


Sanitation facilities will be installed in each of the (10.000) houses in the project area, and in the schools and clinics, where necessary and in  public places. In some cases, the populations may prefer collective systems operated under the local money systems set up in each project area.


For a diagram of the proposed waste disposal system see:




These are based on the separation of urine, faeces, and grey water.


In urban areas, urine, grey water and fertiliser can be used in vertical gardens made from gypsum composite blocks under the LETS systems.


Based on users' preferences and customs in accordance with the decisions reached during the organisation workshops to be held, the population may choose for collective systems and/or for units an individual family or a group of related families.


A typical unit will comprise a small toilet room or building connected to three gypsum composite  tanks. One tank will be used for urine. Two tanks will be used as aerobic composting toilet bins. Building support structures, san-plats for urinals and toilet seats will also be supplied by the local gypsum composite production units. The toilet structures will be built by local builders or cooperative groups and paid for using the LETS local currencies. Use of improved evaporation systems could eliminate one of the composting toilets. For health reasons the twin tank method is preferred.


Almost the whole sanitation project can be done under local exchange trading (LETS) systems, with nearly 100% local value added.


The toilets will be supplied with appropriate washing and cleaning means for personal hygiene.


A small quantity of locally available lime, ash, sawdust or similar would be added to the urine tank once or twice a day and to the faeces after toilet use. The contents of the urine tank can be emptied at any time. A mixture containing one part urine and ten parts of recycled (grey) water can be safely used for watering plants. This high quality product has been known to more than double the productivity of a household garden. An average family with 5 members can produce about 25m3 of this fertiliser per year.


Users not wishing to dispose of the urine themselves will hire local operators to do it for them under the local LETS currency systems. The development using LETS currencies of a collection system may be needed in poor urban areas where users have no gardens or are unable to dispose of their urine.


With the double composting dry toilet system, one properly aerated toilet tank is used until it is more or less full. It is then sealed and allowed to compost for at least 12 months while the second toilet tank is being used. During that time, the compost in the sealed tank reduces to about one wheelbarrow full of soil per adult person per year. After 12 months composting, the soil can be safely and profitably used as soil conditioner.  The longer the composting period the better.


With a single tank improved evaporation system, the faeces are dried by circulating relatively warm air in the system. It produces coagulated pellets that look like dry dogs' food. The residue is light and small. The tank can be emptied any time at 2-3 year intervals and the contents used as soil conditioner.  These systems are not inherently safe, as fresh faeces are not fully separated from dry ones.


Users not able to dispose of the soil conditioner will hire local operators to do so under the local LETS currency systems.


Organic material other than urine and faeces will be composted in simple compost boxes built and supplied under the local LETS currency systems.


In rural project areas, grey household water from the kitchen and from household cleaning can be collected in an appropriate closed container and spread on the family vegetable plot once a day, avoiding the formation of open or stagnant pools and concentrations of water. It can also be used to dilute urine. Users not able to dispose of their grey water will hire local operators to do so under the local LETS currency systems.


In urban areas, grey water may need to be regularly collected, possibly together with urine, and taken to the countryside nearby where it can be recycled. This work would be done under the local LETS currency systems.


Non-organic solid waste products will be recycled in recycling centres operating under the local currency (LETS) systems, creating more local added value. In larger communities the centres may be specialised to some extent. Collection charges will depend on the kind of material being recycled. Environmentally harmful materials will be charged for at a higher rate than other materials. Special waste from clinics will be addressed separately.


Appropriate sanitation services where needed for the schools and clinics in the project area will be included in the project.


Some benefits of dry sanitation.


For a short review, read Münch, E. von and Winker M.,  Technology review : Urine Diversion Components, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit Gmbh  (GTZ), Ecos-san team, Eschborn, December 2009.


With the exception of growing children, who need some nutrients for bone development,  most  “nutrients”  consumed by humans are excreted either as urine or faeces. Amounts of waste “produced” by humans and their composition vary according to sex, age, diet, climatic conditions, and physical work done. An average for urine is 1.5 litres per person per day. An average European adult male will produce about 2 litres of urine per day.  Main urine components produced include about 4 kg of nitrogen, 0,36 kg of phosphorous, and 1 kg of potassium per person per year. This, with about 40 litres per year of safely composted faeces used mainly for soil conditioning, provides basic fertiliser for 300-400m2 of land, which is enough to grow 250 kg of maize or equivalent.  In principle, human waste provides sufficient fertiliser to produce food for the person who produces it, in an on-going ecological cycle.


Useful references for further information on dry sanitation are:

Sawyer, R. Closing the Loop : Ecological sanitation. SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Publications on Water Resources n. 18, Mexico City, 2001, ISBN 91-586-8935-4.

Winblad, U. et al, Ecological Sanitation, SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency), Stockholm, second edition 2004.

A useful reference on sanitation in schools is:

Sanitation for Primary Schools in Africa, Reed Bob and Shaw Rod, WEDC Water Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, 2008.  However this project adopts neither the latrine technologies nor the construction technologies described in the reference.


Management of grey waters in poor countries

Ecological dry sanitation.

Use of urines and faeces as fertiliser.


See also:

Del Porto David & Steinfeld Carol, "The composting toilet system book", CEPP (Center for Ecological Pollution Prevention), Concord Massachusetts 1999. ISBN 0-9666783-0-3


The system for the collection of recycling of waste waters, urine, excreta, other organic solids, non-organic solids will be set up during Moraisian organisation workshops held for the purpose. This section refers to the planned recycling network as a whole. For technical details on the recycling of organic waste, please refer to The following is an indication of the type of structure which would be expected to emerge during the workshops.


The operations will take place under the local money LETS systems. A separate interest-free credit fund is provided in the budget for purchase of equipment which is not available locally and/or which has to be paid for in formal currency.


In principle, the equipment used should not require the consumption of imported energy (electricity, diesel, petrol etc) which causes an on-going financial leakage from the project area. Transport distances should be kept as short as possible.


Costs and benefits analysis.


In principle, sanitation structures in homes should not cost any formal money at all.  For project budget purposes, activities carried out under the local money systems are «monetised » or converted into formal money terms as shown in graph Eco-sanitation structures, items 61001-61006.


On the other hand, formal money benefits are very large. In combination with other services provided, benefits include :


01 Reduction of costs for the treatment of diseases  caused by under-nourishment, inadequate hygiene standards, smoke in and around homes etc : 25% of the population at least once per year  x average cost of medicines and medical treatment =  Euro  20 = 12500 x Euro 20 = Euro  250.000.


02. Reduction of 50% of malaria cases (being 40% of the population at least once a year) through drainage of surface waters, use of nets, hygiene education etc. :.50% of 40% of the population at least once a year an, being 10.000 persons x average cost of anti-malaria treatment Euro 10 = 10.000 x  Euro 10  = Euro 100.000


03. Productivity increase deriving from reduction of malaria cases : 10% of the adult population (being 10% of  30.000)  x 10 days a year x revenue Euro 3 a day = 3000 x 10 x 3 = Euro 90.000.


04. Reduction of urgent transport for the ill : 10% of the population at least once a year, being Euro 38 x 5.000 = Euro 190.000.


05. Fertilisers : recycling of urine and faeces : per person per year (500 litres plus 40 litres of composted faeces) containing 4 kg N, 0 36 kg P, and 1 kg K. Sufficient for  250 kg cereals per person.


For 50.000 person : 200.000 kg N (200 tonnes) ; 18.000 kg P (18 tonnes) ; and 50.000 kg K ( 50 tonnes). Sufficient for 12.500.000 kg  (13.500 tonnes) of cereals.


Prices   8/2008  of  N based fertilisers= € 300/ton x 200 = Euro 85.500 ; P based fertilisers= € 820/ton x 13 = € 14.760 ; K based fertilisers= €330/ton x 50 = €16.600. Total = € 91.260/year.


The local production of fertilisers through recycling of urine and faeces is enough for the food production of the inhabitants, guaranteeing at the same time a very varied diet.


06. Reduction of the costs of imported food into the project area. Often, much of the population is deprived of food security. The price of imported staple foodstuffs such as millet and maize is one of the most important causes of financial leakage and therefore of the extreme poverty of the inhabitants in many project areas. Supposing and average purchasing cost of imported foods of Euro 2,20 per family per day, being 2,20  x 10.000 families x 365 days =  Euro 8.030.500 a year. A reduction of at least 50% of these figures means a saving of 4.015.000, per year. This figure alone is greater than the total formal money cost of a project.


1. Opinion.


The concepts of recycling human waste products at household level may cause problems of social and religious acceptance in some cultures. Give a one-page description of the situation in your chosen project area on this point.


2. Opinion.


You are speaking during a tank commission meeting. There are problems related to the acceptation of the use of urine mixed with grey water for the cultivation of  vegetables for family consumption. On one page, make a speech convincing the community of the advantages of the proposed system.


3. Opinion.


The direct  economic advantages of intelligent recycling of waste products at household level are very important to the local populations. On one page, make a projection of the effects on the current account deficit of your country if these principles were to be applied at national level.


4. Opinion.


Water toilets are an integrated part of the culture of industrialised countries. Their history is not part of this course. Some basic indications  can be found on Wikipedia. On one page give your views on whether you think the use of water toilets is an application of the  NIMBY  «not in my back yard » principle.


5. Opinion.


Provide a one page discussion of the  concept “our wealth lies in our waste”.


 Fourth block :  Section 5: Services structures.

 Fourth  block : The structures to be created.

Main index  for the Diploma in Integrated  Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Technical aspects.

 Courses available.

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"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.


“Poverty is created scarcity”

Wahu Kaara, point 8 of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty, 58th annual NGO Conference, United Nations, New York 7th September 2005.



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