NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.


01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)


Edition 03: 11 August, 2010


Quarter 2.







Value: 06 points out of 18 .

Expected work load: 186 hours out of 504.


The points are finally awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for Section B : Solutions to the Problems.



Fourth block: The structures to be created.


Value : 03 points out of 18

Expected work load: 96 hours out of 504


The points are finally awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for Section B : Solutions to the Problems.



Fourth block: The structures to be created.


Section 5: Services structures. [24 hours]


20.00 hours : Service structures.

04.00 hours : Preparation report.


Fourth block : Exam. [ 4 hours per attempt]



20.00 hours : Service structures.


01. Drinking water structures : organisation.

02. Drinking water structures : technique.

03. Sanitation structures  : organisation.

04. Sanitation structures  : technique.

05. Waste recycling structures : organisation.

06. Waste recycling structures : technique.

07. Photovoltaic lighting structures.

08. Structures for the elimination of smoke in and around homes.

09. Education structures.

10. Health structures.


04.00 hours : Preparation report.



20.00 hours : Service structures.


    01. Drinking water structures : organisation. (At least 2 hours)


Read article annexe  09.24 of the Model : Drinking water and development


General introduction.


All humans have a fundamental right to water and sanitation. (The human right to water and sanitation,  declaration of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 26th July 2010.)


Drinking water supply structures are the integrated development structures involving the highest formal money capital investments. They are set up under an organisational workshop which takes place once most of the other project structures are operative. The following outline is always subject to modifications, which can be substantial, introduced during the Moraisain workshop held for the creation of the structures. They provide in any case an idea of the impressive dimensions of integrated development projects.


The water supply structures are set up at the three social levels which have already been analysed. They are:


The tank commissions. (See Section 2: Social structures of the Fourth block: Structures to be created ) of the course.

The well commissions. (See Section 2: Social structures of the Fourth block: Structures to be created ) of the course.

The central committee. (See Section 2: Social structures of the Fourth block: Structures to be created ) of the course.


Recall the general vision of project structures in general diagram of an individual project from Section 1. Anthropological analysis at three levels  of the third block : solutions to the problems of the course.


Once the three-tiered structuring of the drinking water system has been understood, the concepts behind the drinking water supply prove to be astonishingly simple.


At tank commission level there is a tank system. Click to view the  design of a drinking water tank installation.


The tank is fed by a high pressure solar pump installed in a bore-hole, which can be several kilometres away from the tank.

The tank, the solar pump, and all their accessories including the photovoltaic panels and their support and the feed pipe between the borehole and the tank installation are the property of the tank commission. 


At well commission  level there is a well system. Click to view the design for a well-commission level drinking water installation.


The borehole, equipped  with a group of emergency (back-up) hand pumps, access paths, washing area, enclosure, guards shelters are all the property of the well commissions.

The number of tank systems served by the well systems is variable but will usually be between 5 and 7. The variations are due to various factors including population distribution, distances between well and villages, geo-morphological features, and the capacity of the well.


General system management including financial organisation, purchase of spare parts, statistics etc takes place at central committee level.


An important part of the preparatory work for integrated development projects is the «design» of the water distribution structures according the village and settlement localisation and the population distribution. Obviously, the design of the structures can vary strongly from one project to another.


For a typical example look at the list of villages for the Vivons Makalondi project in Niger.  Tables like the ones shown there can be prepared in one day provided a good scale map (or, if necessary a schematic map which is hand drawn to scale) and up to date information on the populations is available.


Once this work has been done, a water supply summary can be prepared. Taking, for example, the one from the project  Vivons Makalondi :

Total water supply requirements:

Inhabitants : 48511
Bore-holes: 46
Litres/day 1.399.000 (1400 m3) approx.
Solar pumps : 256
Photovoltaic power installed : 67.55 KW
Water tanks (15m3) :256
Hand-pumps : 139 including 45 triple groups and  4 single-pump installations.
Feed pipe from boreholes to tanks (estimation) : 200000m.


Principles for positioning water supply structures.


Where there are no existing wells in the villages/areas in question wells will have to be dug and lined, or boreholes drilled and lined where necessary. The wells/boreholes should be sited as close as possible to the users, taking the hydro-geological conditions into account. The water then has to be pumped through pipelines from the wells to above-ground tanks situated near the users'  houses, so that no-one need go more than 150m from home to fetch water.


The solar pumps are capable of carrying water under pressure over several kilometres. Multiple small high-efficiency pumps in place of larger (but much less efficient) ones are proposed to guarantee a safe constant water supply. If one pump needs maintenance, or if one water pipeline is accidentally damaged, the other pumps continue working.


In most project areas, water should be found at a maximum depth of +/- 90 m. On average the water table should in that case be between  20-40m. below the surface. The solar pumps recommended can operate at a head of 150 metres.


Water quality must be checked and water sourced from deeper aquifers if necessary.


While wells and boreholes do not need to be placed near to users’ homes, they must be protected against theft, in particular of the solar installations placed next to the wells and boreholes. The presence of guardians 24 hours a day is foreseen, but the organisational workshop may wish to give precedence to sites under better social control.


Solar panels are expected to be fitted with en engraving with the name of the project on it and with a “chip” inside, enabling the stolen panel to be traced.


Well linings.


The wells will normally be 2m outside diameter and 1.8m internal diameter. The boreholes will have an internal diameter of at least 8", so that several solar pumps and hand-pumps can be installed in the one borehole, according to borehole capacity.


The wells and boreholes must be well protected against soil instability, using linings locally made in  gypsum composite products factories which are an integral part of the project. The wells must be sealed so that surface water cannot flow back down the well. Hand pumps and platforms must be built so that the users' feet remain dry and never come in contact with water. Access to the hand-pumps/wells must always be dry. For instance, shingle or similar materials can be used so that users' feet always remain dry.


Hand pump platform.


The choice of hand pumps should be such that hand pump platforms do not need to be placed directly over the well or borehole, but at an appropriate point near or at a distance from it. This implies the use of hydraulic pumps using flexible feed pipes.


Illustration of  a recommended hand-pump platform.  


List of drinking water requirements. 


For an analysis of basic drinking water requirements see part  04. Drinking water of  the introduction to the services needed for a good quality of life in section 2  Services needed for a good quality of life of the first block of the course.


The assessment of drinking water requirements is carried out on the basis of an average distance not exceeding 150 meters between each home and a drinking water point. A basic drinking water supply of at least 25 litres per person per day is foreseen. A further 25 litres per person per day is usually made available as a back-up at protected boreholes and wells,  which are placed further away.  The project also provides for domestic rainwater harvesting systems designed to supply an extra 25 litres per person per day of non-potable water for personal uses such as washing and cleaning. Water is not required for sanitation purposes, as dry composting eco-sanitation toilet systems are expected to be used. Where the water table is deep, large diameter boreholes will be drilled, with as much labour as possible carried out by cooperatives under the local money systems. Linings may be produced by the gypsum composite manufacturing units already in operation. For shallower water tables, wells can be hand dug by local cooperatives set up under the project and operating under the local money systems. Both boreholes and wells will be hermetically closed against animals, insects and dust to ensure an optimum water quality. Designs make re-entry of surface water into the well or borehole impossible.


Water points near users’ homes


The solar pumps can carry water through flexible polyethylene pipes over several kilometres if necessary to the water tanks placed near to user’s houses. The tanks have to be large enough to meet users’ requirements for a period of at least three days, to cover periods of poor weather.  The hand-pumps placed near the well or bore-hole assure clean drinking water during long periods of bad weather or in case of emergency.


Purity of water in tanks placed near schools and clinics may be ensured complementary  purification system. Locally built Moringa paste filters can be used for this purpose.


Tanks are equipped with two ball valves.


Gravel will be placed on the ground around the tanks to make sure users’ feet  are always dry. Leakage of water will be absorbed by drainage ranches filled with stones and gravel.


The tanks are locally made by the gypsum composite production units already in operation. They are completely hygienic to ensure the purity of water at the moment it reaches users’ recipients. Hygiene education courses cover the aspects of hygiene necessary to make sure the water stays pure in the family environment.


Some budget elements applicable to the drinking water supply.


Click to view some budget items applicable to drinking water projects in integrated development projects. The example is taken from the proposed  Kiogoro Project, Kenya.


Other water structures.


Click to see a description of  proposed  rainwater harvesting structures.


Organisational workshop for the water distribution system.


Usually just one Moraisian workshop will be held in a given project area.

Indicative participation.

The Moraisian trainers.
The project coordinator.
Integrated Development Consultant, 
Consultant for gypsum composites.
Representative of the Health Ministry.
Representative of the Rural Development ministry.
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects).
30 persons indicated by the tank commissions interested in the systematic maintenance of the structures.
100 persons indicated by the tank commissions, interested in drilling boreholes, drilling wells and building the associated civil and associated works.


Duration of the workshop: about four weeks.


The Workshop will be expected to produce the following structures:


a) A coordination structure
 - definition of the social form
 - statutes
 - rules
 - professional and administrative structures
 - financial aspects including payments
 - relations with the local money LETS systems

b) Analysis of requirements
 Refer to Schedule 1 for full details)

c) Hydro-geological research

d) Preparation of maps showing:
 - sites of boreholes and wells
 - tank sites
 - feed-pipe installation lines

e) Specifications
 - Work bases/depots
 - Boreholes/wells
 - Solar pumps
 - Hand pumps
 - Washing areas
 - Solar panels
 - Panel supports
 - Borehole/well surroundings
 - Laying of pipelines
 - Installation tanks
 - Eventual installation of UV purification units
 - Training of well commissions
 - Training of tank commission

f) Permits

g) The civil works
 - Base for storage of equipment and materials
 - Formation of teams
 - Planning of works
 - Logistics
 - Equipment and materials

h) Installation of the structures

i) Maintenance
 - Creation of the maintenance structure
 - Relations with suppliers
 - Importation and management of spare parts
 - Planning of preventive maintenance
 - Maintenance kits
 - Monitoring system
 - System of statistics f) Logistics
 - Assembly and stocking of materials
 - distribution of mini-briquettes


Costs and benefits relating to drinking water structures.


Under integrated development projects, all maintenance and repair work is carried out under the local money system set up in each project area. The local money system is already in place and in operation before the drinking water structures are set up.  Therefore no formal money is needed to pay for most operation and maintenance activities.  Formal money costs of imported spare parts are covered under a special reserve which is part of the cooperative development fund set up and operated by the people themselves. Until needed these formal money reserves are recycled interest-free for micro-credit loans for productivity purposes.


The total in the cooperative development fund for each project area builds up in ten year cycles.  That way, funds are automatically available when needed for replacement of capital items and/or of  execution of service extensions.  This means that integrated development projects are permanently inherently sustainable over short, middle and long terms.


One of the most surprising aspects of integrated development projects is that service structures, including the very important one for the distribution of drinking water, are amongst the last structures to be set up.  The student is already aware of the logical phases of project execution. This also involve appropriate protection of donor’s investments. 


Costs .


Click for graph showing the costs of  drinking water supply and sanitation, budget items 60901-60923.

Click for graph on supply contracts for the drinking water structures,  budget items 70201-70223.


Some benefits.


01. Water points at 100m from homes.  Average benefit 1 hour savings in water fetching per day (being 10% of a 10 hours working day) x  revenue rated at Euro 3 a day,  or Euro 0,30 a day x 10.000 women = Euro 3000 a day x 365, being Euro 1.095.000 per year.  


02. Washing places. Benefit 4 hours a week (being 40% of  Euro 3, the rated amount for a working day of 8 hours) x revenue Euro 3 = Euro 1,20  x  52 weeks x for  10.000 women = Euro 624.000 .


03. Reduction of the rate of treatment of persons with water-borne diseases:  50% of the population (25.000 people) at least once a year x average cost for medicines and doctors Euro  20 = 25000  x Euro 20 = Euro  500.000 per year.


04. Productivity increase due to reduction of water borne diseases : 50% of the adult population (50% de 30.000)  x 10 days per year x average income Euro 3 per day = 15000 x 10 x 3 = Euro 450.000.


1. Research.


The Model provides for the installation of washing places at well commission level with the intention of respecting the social aspects of washing days where women from several villages can meet. There is no reason why washing areas cannot be built at tank commission level near the water tanks. After having spoken to the women in your chosen area, give a one page explanation of their preference n this respect.


2. Opinion.


The drinking water supply systems are amongst the last to be set up. Inhabitants will have to wait  between 15-18 months for their installation after commencement of each project. The women in your area protest at this delay. On one page explain to them the reasons for it.


3. Opinion.


The women are not convinced by your explanation. The cooperation and  enthusiasm of the women are critical to your project. Describe on one page the compromise solutions proposed by the women. What do you think about them?


4. Research.


Where the tanks are placed is a decision taken by the community to be  served by the water tank in question. Although it is always possible to move the water tank installation to another site, the decision is very important and can cause social friction. The tank can, for example, be placed right at the centre of the community, in the shade, next to the local chief’s home, at a distance away from users’ homes, etc. After having spoken to the women and with the local chiefs,  explain the preferred choices in your project area and the reasons for them.


5. Opinion.


The organisation of the distribution of drinking water in an area with 50.000 inhabitants is a big job.  On one page explain why it automatically becomes comprehensible to the entire population through the use of the proposed three-tiered structure, and executable within a short period. Don’t forget to refer to the division of tasks amongst hundreds of independent «micro-projects » (200 at tank commission level,   35 at well commission level and 1 at  central committee level) executed contemporaneously in parallel with one another.


 Fourth block :  Section 5: Services structures.

 Fourth  block : The structures to be created.

Main index  for the Diploma in Integrated  Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Technical aspects.

 Courses available.

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Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.


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