NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.


01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)


Edition 01: 23  November, 2009



Quarter 2.






Value: 06 points out of 18 .

Expected work load: 186 hours out of 504.


The points are finally awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for Section B : Solutions to the Problems.



Fourth block: The structures to be created.


Value : 03 points out of 18

Expected work load: 96 hours out of 504


The points are finally awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for Section B : Solutions to the Problems.



Fourth block: The structures to be created.


Section 5: Services structures. [24 hours]


20.00 hours : Service structures.

04.00 hours : Preparation report.


Fourth block : Exam. [ 4 hours per attempt]



20.00 hours : Service structures.


01. Drinking water structures : organisation.

02. Drinking water structures : technique.

03. Sanitation structures  : organisation.

04. Sanitation structures  : technique.

05. Waste recycling structures : organisation.

06. Waste recycling structures : technique.

07. Photovoltaic lighting structures.

08. Structures for the elimination of smoke in and around homes.

09. Education structures.

10. Health structures.


04.00 hours : Preparation report.



20.00 hours : Service structures.


06. Waste recycling structures : technique. (At least two hours)


This section provides an analysis of some techniques for the collection and recycling of non-organic wastes.


The collection of  organic waste takes placed, in general, at tank commission level.


In principle, the collection of non organic  waste takes place at well commission level. This means the presence of 35-45 non organic waste recycling centres in each project area.. 


Non organic waste is separated at household level. Collection is direct. This is made possible through the operation of the local money system set up in each project area.


There are several ways of financing the systems. The choice amongst them will be made during the Moraisian workshop during which the recycling structures are set up. Usually, a typical budget will be set up for each centre, expressed in work hours plus, where applicable, formal money costs. One part relating to the hours of work will be divided within the local money system amongst all the (+/- 350) families served by the centre, which operates at well commission level. This part forms the basic financial coverage for  the service. A second part of the local money fees would be charged to individual users each time the operator withdraws waste products at their homes. Eventual formal money costs would be recovered by the collectors through the  «exportation » of waste products outside the project area.. 


1. Research.


Describe on one page the system you think might work best in your chosen project area .If you think the concepts described here would not work in your area, explain why and propose an alternative.


2. Research.


On one page make an assessment of the quantities of ferrous -, non-ferrous-, glass-, plastics- , and rubber items and the, dangerous liquids (example used oils) and medicines that you think would need to be collected in your project area and state how these items are now being disposed of.


Industrial recycling of glass


“Glass bottles and jars are gathered via curbside collection schemes and bottle banks, where the glass is sorted into color categories. The collected glass cullet is taken to a glass recycling plant where it is monitored for purity and contaminants are removed. The cullet is crushed and added to a raw material mix in a melting furnace. It is then mechanically blown or molded into new jars or bottles. Glass cullet is also used in the construction industry for aggregate and glassphalt. Glassphalt is a road-laying material which comprises around 30% recycled glass. Glass can be recycled indefinitely as its structure does not deteriorate when reprocessed.” (Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)


A resource in French for the industrial recycling of glass can be found at collection, grinding and recycling of household and similar glass, Cercle Nationale du Recyclage, Lille, 2008.




“Concrete aggregate collected from demolition sites is put through a crushing machine, often along with asphalt, bricks, dirt, and rocks. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. Crushed recycled concrete can also be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete if it is free of contaminants.” (Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)


French speakers can also refer to table 11, p. 38, Guide on the recycling of dry materials, Société Québecoise de Récupération et de Recyclage (Recyc-Quebec), Québec, 1999.


3. Opinion.


Are the problems with concrete and other  «inert » construction materials in our chosen area ? Describe them on one page and indicate how you would recycle them.




 “Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastics and reprocessing the material into useful products. Compared to glass or metallic materials, plastic poses unique challenges - because of the massive number of types of plastic, they each carry a resin identification code, and must be sorted before they can be recycled. This can be costly - while metals can be sorted using electromagnets, no such 'easy sorting' capability exists for plastics. In addition to this, while labels do not need to be removed from bottles for recycling, lids are often made from a different kind of non-recyclable plastic.

“Plastics recycling rates lag far behind those of other items, such as newspaper and aluminium; consumers are typically unsure of how to recycle plastics, and compared to paper and metals fewer recycling facilities exist.

“Finally, recycled plastic is less appealing to manufacturers than new plastic.”  (Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)

Some non-organic waste products can be extremely useful in their original form. Plastic water bottles can be used for drip irrigation of plants, or for the construction of fly traps.


Warning !! Never submit plastics to thermal treatment without first obtaining qualified advice. Dangerous toxic products harmful to operators and to the environment may be released.



4. Opinion.


Integrated development projects are sustainable and ecological. Use of materials which are difficult to recycle locally is actively discouraged. The use of all packing materials is, where legally possible, subject to surcharge or banned altoegther.Where there legal impediments exist a local formal money deposit may be applied. On one page, propose a regulation (bye-law) for this which would be acceptable to the local populations.




“The large variation in size and type of batteries makes their recycling extremely difficult: they must first be sorted into similar kinds and each kind requires an individual recycling process. Additionally, older batteries contain mercury and cadmium, harmful materials which must be handled with care. .” (Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)


In developing countries the use of batteries is widespread. Few of them are rechargeable. They are mostly discarded in nature. Battery driven equipment is mostly inefficient. The purchase of batteries can be a major charge on meagre family incomes.

Integrated development projects provide for the reduction, and if possible, the elimination of the use of non-rechargeable batteries in project areas. Until this is done, batteries will be carefully collected, sorted, and “exported” for recycling.

Batteries contain valuable base materials.  On 24th November 2009, the official quotation for nickel was US$ 16,605 ( +/- € 11,070) per ton; for copper US$ 6,864 ( +/- € 4,575) per ton; for zinc US$ 2,220 ( +/- € 1,480) per ton;  for lead US$ 2,357 ( +/- € 1,3750) per ton. In integrated development projects the cost of collection is borne under the local money system, so the potential formal money profits on “export” of collected batteries makes it an appealing initiative.

The added value of  the collection and recycling of batteries is not limited to that of the component metals. Savings in social costs of environmental pollution (soil, water, wild-life etc) are also important.


5. Research.


Analyse the consumption of different types of batteries in your chosen project area and if and  how they are recycled . On one page list the results in kilograms per year  for each type of battery. What are your conclusions?


Electronics disassembly and reclamation


“The direct disposal of electrical equipment—such as old computers and mobile phones is banned in many areas due to the toxic contents of certain components. The recycling process works by mechanically separating the metals, plastics and circuit boards contained in the appliance. When this is done on a large scale at an electronic waste recycling plant, component recovery can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

“Electronic devices, including audio-visual components (televisions, VCRs, stereo equipment), mobile phones and other hand-held devices, and computer components, contain valuable elements and substances suitable for reclamation, including lead, copper, and gold. They also contain a plethora of toxic substances such as dioxins, PCBs, cadmium, chromium, radioactive isotopes, and mercury. Additionally, the processing required to reclaim the precious substances (including incineration and acid treatments) release, generate and synthesize further toxic byproducts.

“In the United States, an estimated 70% of heavy metals in landfills come from discarded electronics. Some regional governments are attempting to curtail the accumulation of electronics in landfills by passing laws obligating manufacturers and consumers to recycle these devices, but because in many cases safe dismantlement of these devices in accordance with first world safety standards is unprofitable, historically much of the electronic waste has been shipped to countries with lower or less rigorously-enforced safety protocols. Places like Guiyu, China dismantle tonnes of electronics every year, profiting from the sale of precious metals, but at the cost of the local environment and the health of its residents.

“Mining to produce the same metals, to meet demand for finished products in the west, also occurs in the same countries, and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has recommended that restrictions against recycling exports be balanced against the environmental costs of recovering those materials from mining. Hard rock mining in the USA produces 45% of all toxics produced by all USA industries (2001 US EPA Toxics Release Inventory).”  .” (Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)


In some European countries, including the Netherlands, a recycling tax is paid on the purchase of electric equipment and white goods (kitchen appliances,  washing machines, driers etc) .  Discarded goods are completely dismantled and the parts distributed to specialist operators for recycling.


Printer ink cartridges & toners


“Printer ink cartridges can be recycled. They are sorted into different brands and models which are then resold back to the companies that created these cartridges. The companies then refill the ink reservoir which can be sold back to consumers. Toner cartridges are recycled the same way as ink cartridges, using toner instead of ink. This method of recycling is highly efficient as there is no energy spent on melting and recreating the recycled object itself.” (Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)


Ferrous metals


“Iron and steel are the world's most recycled materials, and among the easiest materials to recycle, as they can be separated magnetically from the waste stream. Recycling is via a steelworks: scrap is either re-melted in an Electric Arc Furnace (90-100% scrap), or used as part of the charge in a Basic Oxygen Furnace (around 25% scrap). Any grade of steel can be recycled to top quality new metal, with no 'downgrading' from prime to lower quality materials as steel is recycled repeatedly. 42% of crude steel produced is recycled material. “(Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)


Non-ferrous metals


“Aluminium is shredded and ground into small pieces. These pieces are melted in an aluminium smelter to produce molten aluminium. By this stage the recycled aluminium is indistinguishable from virgin aluminium and further processing is identical for both.

“Due to the large amount of energy required to extract aluminium from ore and it's low melting point, the environmental benefits of recycling aluminium are enormous. Approximately 5% of the CO2 is produced during the recycling process compared to producing raw aluminium (and an even smaller percentage when considering the complete cycle of mining and transporting the aluminium). Also, as open-cut mining most often used for obtaining aluminium ore, mining destroys large sections of natural land.

“For example, an aluminium can is 100% recyclable every time it is recycled, it saves enough energy to watch television for about three hours (compared to mining and producing a new can). ” (Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)




“Recycled paper is made from waste paper, usually mixed with fresh wood pulp. If the paper contains ink, it must be de-inked. This also removes fillers, clays, and fiber fragments.

“Almost all paper can be recycled today, but some types are harder to recycle than others. Kraft paper, papers coated with plastic or aluminum foil, and papers that are waxed, pasted, or gummed are usually not recycled because the process is too expensive. Different types of paper are usually sorted before recycling, such as newspapers and cardboard boxes.

“Different grades of paper are recycled into different types of new products. Old newspapers are usually made into new newsprint, egg cartons, or paperboard. Old corrugated boxes are made into new corrugated boxes or paperboard. High-grade white office paper can be made into almost any new paper product: stationery, newsprint, magazines, or books.

“Sometimes recyclers ask for the removal of the glossy inserts from newspapers because they are a different type of paper. Glossy inserts have a heavy clay coating that some paper mills cannot accept. Since the paper is weighed down by the clay coating, a paper mill gets more recyclable fibers from a ton of pure newsprint.

“Paper can only be recycled a finite number of times due to the shortening of paper fibers making the material less versatile. Often it will be mixed with a quantity of virgin material, referred to as downcycling. This does not however exclude the material from being used in other processes such as composting or anaerobic digestion, where further value can be extracted from the material in the form of compost or biogas. “(Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)

Integrated development projects offer two possibilities of recycling paper. The first is collection, shredding, and use as an ingredient of mini-briquettes for  cooking stoves. (See 2. Units for the production  of mini-briquettes of part 4 of this Block of the course). The shredded paper for this purpose can be saturated in used cooking oils. The second is standard recycling at project level for the local production of  paper.




“When considering textile recycling one must understand what the material consists of. Most textiles are composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. The textile's composition will affect its durability and method of recycling.

“Workers sort and separate collected textiles into good quality clothing and shoes which can be reused or worn. These sorting facilities are in a trend of being moved from developed countries such as the UK to developing countries.

“Damaged textiles are further sorted into grades to make industrial wiping cloths and for use in paper manufacture or material which is suitable for fibre reclamation and filling products. If textile reprocessors receive wet or soiled clothes however, these may still end up being disposed of in landfill, as the washing and drying facilities are not present at sorting units.

“Fibre reclamation mills sort textiles according to fibre type and colour. Colour sorting eliminates the need to re-dye the recycled textiles. The textiles are shredded into "shoddy" fibres and blended with other selected fibres, depending on the intended end use of the recycled yarn. The blended mixture is carded to clean and mix the fibres and spun ready for weaving or knitting. The fibres can also be compressed for mattress production. Textiles sent to the flocking industry are shredded to make filling material for car insulation, roofing felts, loudspeaker cones, panel linings and furniture padding.” (Recycling Techniques,, Jefferson, Indiana, 2009, accessed 24 November 2009.)

Integrated development projects offer several possibilities of recycling textiles. A first use, is for the recycling of whole garments and/or patches of like materials which can be recycled  into garments. Another is collection, snipping, and use as an ingredient of mini-briquettes for  cooking stoves. (See 2. Units for the production  of mini-briquettes of part 4 of this Block of the course). The snipped textiles for this purpose can be saturated in used cooking oils. A third use is standard recycling at project level for the local production of  paper. Some fibres can be used as filters for drip irrigation systems.


6. Opinion.


Give a  one page summary on  why the recycling of non-organic materials is especially profitable within the framework of integrated development projects.


 Fourth block :  Section 5: Services structures.

 Fourth  block : The structures to be created.

Main index  for the Diploma in Integrated  Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Technical aspects.

 Courses available.

Homepage Bakens Verzet


"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.


“Poverty is created scarcity”

Wahu Kaara, point 8 of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty, 58th annual NGO Conference, United Nations, New York 7th September 2005.



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