NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.


01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)


Edition 01: 23 November, 2009

Edition 02 : 07 March, 2011


Quarter 2.






Value: 06 points out of 18 .

Expected work load: 186 hours out of 504.


The points are finally awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for Section B : Solutions to the Problems.



Fourth block: The structures to be created.


Value : 03 points out of 18

Expected work load: 96 hours out of 504


The points are finally awarded only on passing the consolidated exam for Section B : Solutions to the Problems.



Fourth block: The structures to be created.


Section 5: Services structures. [24 hours]


20.00 hours : Service structures.

04.00 hours : Preparation report.


Fourth block : Exam. [ 4 hours per attempt]



20.00 hours : Service structures.


01. Drinking water structures : organisation.

02. Drinking water structures : technique.

03. Sanitation structures  : organisation.

04. Sanitation structures  : technique.

05. Waste recycling structures : organisation.

06. Waste recycling structures : technique.

07. Photovoltaic lighting structures.

08. Structures for the elimination of smoke in and around homes.

09. Education structures.

10. Health structures.


04.00 hours : Preparation report.



20.00 hours : Service structures.


05. Waste recycling structures : organisation.


This section is about the recycling of household wastes. The recycling of animal wastes, especially in areas inhabited by pastoralists, is not directly covered under the Model. It is a productive activity which will be organised at individual small farm level under the framework of the various project structures created. Where populations wish to bring the recycling of animal waste within their budgeted project activities, this will be done under  Section 4: Productive structures. This activity could be covered by CDM financing under part 09-10. Methane recovery from animal waste for cooking and lighting purposes especially in pastoralist areas  of Sect. 5 : Kyoto Treaty : Analysis of  possibilities for finance of  Block 8 : Economic aspects.


For a general reference on small-scale biogas installations in developing countries see Sasse L. et al, Improved Biogas Unit for Developing Countries. Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1991, copyright GTZ, Eschborn. ISBN 3-528-02063-6


The following drawings and graphs form an integral part of this project proposal.


Detailed technical information on the treatment of grey water is included in attachment 24.

The main principles behind the proposed system are:


- (a)  Recycling should always be done at the lowest possible level, starting with the individual user.
- (b)  Recycling at a second level should also be done as late as possible during the composting cycle to reduce the volume of material handled.
- (b)  The whole system should be operated within the local (LETS) currencies.
- (b)  Capital investment for recycling equipment, transport and storage under 5) and 6) will be a priority for Micro-credit loans.
- (e)  "Dirty" work will be better paid than "clean" work in the LETS systems, because the rate of pay will reflect the willingness of workers to do the work.

         Those doing unpleasant work will have an above-average income within the LETS systems so that there should be no difficulty finding people to do

         the work.
- (f)  Waste should, as far as possible, be recycled within the project area so communities are self-sufficient and there is no leakage of formal money from the

        system. In particular, materials like metals, paper, plastics can often be treated at local level for use in local industries creating jobs and local value

        added during both treatment and production. The principle also promotes the export of re-cycled products for formal currency which will be used to

        repay the interest free micro-credits loans.
- (g) Lucrative job possibilities are created within the system.
- (h) Export and sale of selected non-organic solid waste through the recycling centres for formal currency so micro-credits for re-cycling operation can be

- (i)  Selected non-organic solid waste products will treated locally and recycled as raw material for local artisan industries.
- (j)  Interest free micro-loans for compost collectors under 5) above may need to be for a longer term than other micro-credits as most of the compost will be

        recycled within the local currency system. Some of the compost collection charges may have to be in formal currency or the equipment may need to be

        used part-time outside the LETS systems to help earn formal currency to repay the micro-credit loans.
- (k) Recycling of special industrial and medical wastes to be addressed separately.

- (l)  The use of throw-away waste products without value added, such as product packaging, is discouraged.

-(m) Repairable goods will be repaired at project level under the local money LETS system set up. Spare parts not locally available will be charged in formal

        money at their original imported formal money price. 

The sanitation and rubbish collection package includes the following elements:

- 1) Dry composting toilet tanks made from gypsum composite.
- 2) Toilet tanks for urine made from gypsum composites.
- 3) Grey water tanks made from gypsum composites and basic grey water treatment facilities.
- 4) Locally made compost bins for organic waste other than urine, faeces and grey water.
- 5) A system to collect and where necessary store the compost from 1) and 4), urine from 2) and grey water (from 3) of users who have no land or garden on which to recycle their own waste.
- 6) A system to collect and recycle non-organic solid waste through recycling centres.

The above-mentioned 6 elements in now analysed in turn:



Two gypsum composite tanks will be needed to collect and compost faeces.

The first properly aerated composting toilet tank is used until it is more or less full. It is then sealed and allowed to compost for 9-12 months while the second toilet tank is being used. The compost in the first tank reduces to about one wheelbarrow full of soil per adult person per year, and after the 9-12 months composting period it can be safely and profitably used as soil conditioner. Were an improved evaporation system to be used, the faeces in the single tank used would be evaporated by relatively warm air circulation in the system. This process forms dry coagulated lumps that look like dry dogs' food. These residues are light and greatly reduced in volume. They can be emptied at any time over 2-3 year periods and used as soil conditioner. Users who do not want to dispose of the resultant soil conditioner themselves will hire local operators to do the work under the local LETS currency systems.

Only one toilet seat/san-plat is required for double dry-tank installations. It is simply re-installed over the empty tank when the tanks are changed.

The second tank in the two-tank system can be bought at a later phase of the project because it will not be needed for at least a year. This helps spread purchases within the LETS systems over a wider time span.

The small quantities of water in containers used by toilet users for toilet cleaning, for personal hygiene after defecation and for first cycle washing of faecally soiled clothing such as babies’ napkins will be added to the dry toilet tanks.   


The urine tanks will have to be emptied regularly unless evaporation systems are used. Wet systems are preferred because they create more value added in terms of increased garden production. Urine, with a little lime sawdust or equivalent added regularly, can in principle  be used systematically for watering plants as long as it is diluted with 10 parts of water or grey water to one part of urine, substantially increasing the productivity of the garden.

The small quantities of water in containers used by urinal users for urinal cleaning and for personal hygiene will be added to the urine tanks.

Users unable to re-cycle the urine from their tanks and who do not use evaporation systems will have to arrange for the urine tanks to be emptied periodically under the local LETS systems for re-cycling within the project area.

Urine is in principle sterile, but can contain pathogens where users are ill. While risk of contamination is thought to be low,  users may wish to provide for a double tank system offering temporary storage of urine for up to six months when planning their systems. In that case larger storage tanks with a volume of up to 0.75m3 would need to be used.


These Gypsum composite (R) tanks will usually be near the users houses to collect waste water from normal household use.


Simple filter systems will be used to eliminate grease, oils, and similar from the grey water.


Where it is separated from water with risk of fæcal infection (see point 1 above) filtered grey water can also be recycled as it is for use on gardens provided there is no risk of its leaching into ground water.


Ten parts of grey water mixed with one part of (sterile) urine can also be recycled for use on gardens.

Detailed technical information on the treatment of grey water is included in attachment 24.

Users unable to re-cycle the grey water from their tanks will need to arrange for the tanks to be emptied periodically under the local LETS currency systems for re-cycling within the project area.


Other organic household waste is mostly made up from kitchen refuse that has to be outside the users' houses without giving rise to unpleasant smells or attracting insects. It can usually be mixed with soil and composted in an appropriate locally made bin or tank. The compost can then be disposed of in the garden if there is one, or it can collected periodically under the LETS systems and re-cycled elsewhere in the project area.

Animals such as chickens and goats are capable of productively recycling normal kitchen refuse.


The need for collection and the amount of composting prior to collection will depend on the living space available to users. It will therefore vary from project to project and from zone to zone.

The workers who collect, store, and re-cycle the compost will get priority micro-credits to buy the equipment they need. They will be well paid within the local currency systems to do the work which is likely to be considered less attractive than other jobs.


Recycling centres will be established on a zone basis. Users will be required to take their non-organic solid waste to their zone centre. They can also asks the recycling centre to collect their waste and pay for the service in local (LETS) currency.

The recycling centres will sort the waste and store it until there is enough to sell commercially. Some centres may specialise by buying some kinds of waste collected by other centres so as to increase the commercial volume for export. They may also treat the waste they specialise in and prepare it for use by local industry, keeping the added value within the local system.

Re-cycling centre owners will get priority for micro-credit loans to buy the equipment they need to collect, store, and treat the waste.


Collection system and stocking of composted material


Individual members decide which level of service they want to use, so the systems adopted may vary from one tank commission area to another and from one well-commission area to another. The services foreseen are labour intensive, and should create a lot of well-paid jobs within the local money systems.

Collection, stocking, and recycling systems will be set up during an organisation workshop held for that purpose. People accepting responsibility for these activities will receive priority for micro-credit loans to help them set their activities up. Some funds are usually reserved for this in the project budgets. Where necessary, a call can be made on the micro-credit structures set up.


System for the collection of  non-organic solids.


The systems will be set up during the organisational workshop foreseen.

Recycling centres will be set up, probably at well-commission level. Users may be required to take their  own non-organic waste to the centres.  Of course, they can also have them collected at household level by local operators operating under the local money system.

The recycling centres will separate and store the waste products until they are in a position to sell them commercially  either for formal money outside the project area, or for local money inside the project area. Different centres may specialise in the specific groups of materials through a specialisation agreement. This would allow centres to accumulate the minimum amount of specific materials needed  for trading in the formal money world more quickly. The materials « exported » outside the project area would be paid for in formal money, so that the operators can reimburse their micro-credits more quickly.

Other centres may choose to collect certain materials for recycling to local artisans, thereby holding all the added value created in the project area itself.

People accepting responsibility for these activities will receive priority for micro-credit loans to help them set their activities up. Some funds are usually reserved for this in the project budgets. Where necessary, a call can be made on the micro-credit structures set up.


Finance for the waste collection structures.


Project budgets include a special item to cover the costs of setting the waste recycling structures up. This sector will receive priority treatment.  The funds are repaid by the beneficiaries in the same as those made available to the units for the manufacture of articles from gypsum composites. The loans are interest-free credits repayable to what the workshop participants consider to be the real possibilities of the beneficiaries. Loan repayments are financed by the sale of materials (fertilisers, compost, other materials) outside the project area and the  “exportation” of non-organic solid materials considered to be unrecyclable in the project area itself. For a general illustration of a waste recycling system see :


For expenditure on the structures refer to the graph :

Waste recycling, items 60701-60706.

Item 70202 of the typical budget is for an amount of Euro 82.000. It covers the purchase of means of transport necessary to set a recycling system up at project level.

The benefits deriving from household-level recycling were illustrated in the preceding section 2. Sanitation structures.   

The amounts of human waste to be recycled, one way or another, are known as they are determined by the physical aspects of humans, which are fairly constant from one project area to another.


It is however difficult to make an exact evaluation of the benefits deriving  from the recycling of wastes other than human wastes as covered in part 2. Sanitation structures.  The situation in one project area is different from that in other areas. Both from the point of view of existing productive activities there as from the point of view of the consumption patterns and the purchasing power of the populations.  The quantities of iron, paper, wood, plastics, glass, rubber, aluminium cans, medical wastes etc  potentially available will need to be estimated project by project.


Applying principle (a) from the list above, recycling should always be done at the lowest possible level, beginning with single user. Where the use is unable or does not want to do the recycling, the job of recycling passes to the second level, that of the tank commissions, where it is expected most of the organic waste will be recycled. Some wastes destined for incorporation in  mini-briquettes for cooking (refer to section 2. Unit for the production of mini-briquettes of the productive structures of the fourth block : the structures to be created), the waste products would be passed on to well-commission level.


For all other categories of waste, collection will be made at well-commission level, with an eventual «specialisation» passage at well-commission level, and finally a level for “industrial” centralisation at  project level for export from the project area .


Organisational workshop

The work of the recycling structures will be carried out within the local money LETS systems already set up. One of the more interesting features of LETS systems is that, in contrast with what happens in the western monetised economies, work considered as "dirty" and/or "heavy" is usually better paid than "clean" and/or "light" work as the rates charged will normally be related to the perceived value of an hour's work in the foreseeable normal working situation.

Usually at least two Moraisian workshops will be held. Often, one workshop for each LETS loal money system.

Indicative participation (all workshops together)

The Moraisian trainers
The project coordinator
Consultant Terry Manning
At least one representative of the ONG
Representative of the Finance Ministry
Representative of the Health Ministry
Representative of the Rural Development ministry
At least 5 observers (possible coordinators for future projects)
350 persons (male and female)indicated by the tank commissions, interested in participating.

Duration of each workshop: about six weeks.

The Workshops will be expected to produce the following structures:

a) Definition of the social form of the structures
- statutes
- rules
- professional and administrative structures
- financial aspects including relations with the Micro-credit institution
- relations with the local money LETS systems

b) Analysis of requirements

c) A structure for the recycling centres
- Definition of the land requirements and the physical structures necessary
- formalities and permits
- design of the centres
- construction of the centres
- purchase of the necessary equipment

d) A structure for the collection/deposition of waste
- urine
- composted excreta
- waste water
- other organic waste
- non organic solids
- special industrial wastes
- medical wastes
- who will do what
- definition of individual zones
- definition of specialisations

e) A commercial structures
- definition of the tariffs applicable to the various types of material
- distribution of urine and composted excreta
- direct recycling of certain materials
- contacts for the exportation of materials not recyclable locally

f) A monitoring structure
- sanitary conditions
- ecological conditions
- safety conditions

g) A communications structure
- vertical, at project level (coordinator, centre managers, collection structures, end users)
- horizontal, between centres
- relations with local money LETS systems
- commercial, radio, website

1. Opinion.


You are responsible for recycling at well commission level. The populations served by the well commission are not used to recycling items they no longer need. Write a one-page proposal for the promotion of recycling in your well commission area.


2. Opinion.


You are ponce again responsible for recycling at well commission level. During the execution of your campaign for the promotion of recycling in your area, you meet the traditional chiefs of the area. On one page explain to them in words they can understand the relationship between recycling and the protection of the local environment.


3. Research.


Recycling of  organic wastes at tank commission can bring important value added and to the creation of  «jobs » .Give a one-page description of these developments for a tank commission area in your chosen project, then multiply the results by 200,  and make a summary of the costs and benefits at project level.


4. Research.


Recycling of organic kitchen wastes can involve some risks to public health. In integrated development projects these risks are reduced, as collection is hygienically  made at least once a day. The person responsible for collection has two recipients for each family served. She/he collects the containing waste and replaces it with the second, which has been properly cleaned. On one page make a summary of the laws and local regulations applicable to the collection of organic waste in your country. Next to each one, cite the specific actions required. Indicate whether the system of collection foreseen in this section meets the prescribed  standards.


5. Opinion.


On one page prepare an organigram  of the system you think is needed for the inspection of structures for the collection of organic wastes in your project area.


 Fourth block :  Section 5: Services structures.

 Fourth  block : The structures to be created.

Main index  for the Diploma in Integrated  Development  (Dip. Int. Dev.)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Technical aspects.

 Courses available.

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"Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.


“Poverty is created scarcity”

Wahu Kaara, point 8 of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty, 58th annual NGO Conference, United Nations, New York 7th September 2005.



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