NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.





Projects, examples



Articles and resources 

  About Us  


More on development issues

Some useful technologies

   Contact us





Sustainable fully ecological self-financing poverty alleviation in rural and poor urban environments, incorporating an innovative package of social,

financial, and productive structures, with basic services necessary for a good quality of life for all, a leading role for women, and numerous renewable energy applications.


Version 08 : 05 May, 2011.

Version 13 : 10 January, 2014.








“Like the biosphere, the living economies we seek will self-organize within a framework of market rules. Rooted locally everywhere and dependent primarily on their own resource base, they will have built in incentives to optimize creative adaptation to local microenvironments. With the decision-making powers of ownership distributed among the community’s members in their multiple roles as producers, consumers, and citizens there will be a natural incentive to internalize costs and manage resources responsibly.” Korten D., The New Economy : Design for Life. Can we design a self-correcting society?, YES! Magazine, Bainbridge Island,  02 May, 2011.

This project has been prepared following an innovative Model for self-financing, ecological, sustainable local integrated development projects. It covers a complete package of social, financial, productive and service structures for on-going sustainable development in the beneficiary community. All of the Millennium Goals are surpassed in the project area except for vaccinations and curative medicine and goal 8 which has nothing to do with local development. They have been excluded because they tend to cause financial leakage. The project has been worked out together with the people concerned, who plan, execute, run, own and, where necessary, pay for all the structures set up. All structures are organised to ensure that women play the leading role in all project activities. Finance, technology and human capacity building are practically integrated with each other to offer feasible, sustainable solutions to development in the project area.


All social, financial, productive and service structures provided automatically include all of the people in the project area without exclusion. The overriding concept is the attainment of a good quality of life for all there. The project promotes a general mobilisation of the local population.


The model for integrated development itself  takes the form of  the simple standard project index  used for the drafting of the project documentation .


For extended information on an given aspect, click on the blue links.




A 32-slide Powerpoint presentation.




[One paragraph on the project location, size, population]





The project provides innovative and complete solutions to many basic problems in the project area, including the following, which are  listed in alphabetical order.


Agriculture and food security.

Corruption-free development.   

Credit crises. 

Ecology, conservation and adaptation to climate change in the project area.


Gender and women's rights.                                      


Millennium Development Goals.

Water and sanitation.



This integrated development project is anthropologically justified. It is structured for about (10000) households (50000 users), providing a wide range of goods and services and a local market to consume them. Individual community members remain close to all project structures and are free and encouraged to participate in them. This type of structure arose about 3.500 years ago with the Greek city states. There are about (45) intermediate administrative structures each with 1500-2000 inhabitants, with some specialisation of tasks. These are called well commissions. This type of structure arose about 7.500 years ago. There are about (200) local administrative units, each with about 150-250 people. These are called tank commissions. This type of structure formed about 13.000 years ago in Mesopotamia and is based on the family clan or tribe. Many structures in industrialised countries still reflect this three-tiered structure, which is linked with the development of human social contacts and abilities and, possibly, with the size of the human brain.


The principle of subsidiarity with its chain of responsibilities is applied throughout. Structures should operate at the lowest possible level. Tasks and responsibilities are logically dividedamongst the three administrative levels. The chart showing some typical examples of vertical specialisation illustrates this.


For full details refer to the Powerpoint presentation : basic project architecture.



All structures created in the project area operate on all three anthropological levels described above. They are created in a critical order of sequence.

The first structures to be created are the social structures, starting with health clubs permitting women to organise and vote en bloc at meetings; then the tank commissions, then the well commissions, then the central committee or project parliament. The financial structures follow, starting with the local money (LETS) system, then the interest-free cost-free cooperative micro-credit system, then the cooperative purchasing groups. Once the first two financial structures are in place, productive structures can be set up to make items needed for the planned services, including distributed drinking water and sanitation services.

For details see the Powerpoint presentation on the basic project structures.

For full  details please refer to the structures to be created.




The long term goals of  this integrated development project include:


01. To sustain on-going improvement of the general quality of life well-being and health of the local people, without exclusion.

02. To promote an autonomous, cooperative, interest-free, inflation-free local economy in the project area.

03. To stop financial leakage from the project area.

04. To dedicate human resources in the project area to local production and development.

05. To permanently reduce water borne, malaria and other infectious diseases.

06. To decrease child mortality and promote family planning.

07. To increase literacy levels for all, especially for women and girls.

08. To eliminate dependency on fuels and food imported from outside the project area.

09. To help reduce deforestation and global warming and to adapt the project area to climate change.

10. To create value from locally recycled organic waste and non-organic solid waste.

11. To create a "maintenance culture" to conserve the investments made.

12. To promote women's rights and a majority participation of women in all of the project structures.

13. To provide all of the inhabitants in the project area with full-time cooperative productive deployment. (“Full employment”)

14. To help stop the movement of population from rural areas to towns.

15. To surpass all of the Millennium Development Goals in the project area with the exception of vaccinations and curative medicine and goal 8, which has nothing to do with local development.




Once the planned structures have been created the local population is able to what they want according to their own capabilities and initiatives. Activities carried out under the local exchange system using local labour and materials do not need a formal money (Euros) budget. That is why, for example, so many simple local schools can be built without adding to the formal money project budget. Since local level  development commissions act independently of each other, a school can be built in each commission area contemporaneously with schools in all the other areas. The same concept applies to homes for nurses, food storage facilities, plant nurseries and so on. The same concept applies at the intermediate level for secondary schools, the construction of clinics for doctors, seed banks, and so on. That is why these important activities carry little weight in the formal money budget.


The expected minimum direct results automatically built in to this project are :


Democratic social structures preferably with a majority women’s participation.


01) (200) Community health clubs formed and operating in the project area; on-going hygiene education courses provided in (35) schools.

02) (200) Local development committees with 5-7 members formed and operative each serving 50 families (250 people).

03) (45) Intermediate level development committees with 5-7 members formed and operative each serving about 350 families (1500 people).

04) One central committee with (45) members formed and operative serving the entire project area (10.000 homes; 50.000 people).


Financial structures to counter credit crises and related savings.


05) One local exchange system formed operating serving (200) local development areas, (45) intermediate development areas, and the whole project area.

06) One interest-free, cost-free cooperative micro-credit system formed and operating serving (200) local development areas, (45) intermediate development areas, and the whole project area.

07)  Cooperative purchasing  groups formed and in operation serving (200) local development areas, (45) intermediate development areas, and the whole project area. (Voluntary purchasing groups, medicines, education, home power systems etc).

08) The local cooperative development fund saves Euro 520.000 a year in interest payments.


Social security structures.


09) A three-tiered social security system formed and in operation serving (200) local development areas, (45) intermediate development areas, and the whole project area.


Water and sanitation and related savings.


10) Appropriate sanitation installed  in each of the (10.000) homes in the project area and in public places.

11) (45) multi-pump boreholes/wells drilled/dug and equipped with multi-unit hand-pump installations and washing places. Benefit for washing places 4 hours/woman a week = Euro 624.000 per year. 

12) (200) high-pressure solar pumping systems installed each serving about 50 families (250 people) providing a permanent safe drinking water supply in the project area in all foreseeable circumstances.

13) (200) water tank units installed within a radius of 150-200m from users' homes. Average benefit  1 woman/hour’s water fetching per day, benefit Euro 1.095.000 per year.

14) 10.000 locally built rainwater collection systems installed on individual dwellings.

15) Efficient drainage systems for wastewater from [number] inhabited centres.

16) [Number] 5m3 wastewater collection tanks installed on farmland for micro-irrigation.


Organic and non-organic waste recycling and related savings.


17) (200) systems for the collection and recycling of wastes set up and operating at local development area level.

18) (45) systems for the collection and recycling of waste products set up and operating at intermediate development area level.

19) One system for the collection and recycling of wastes set up and operating at project level.

20) Fertiliser savings. An average of 550 kg of urine and 51 kg of faeces per person per year, with a total production of  4550 gr, of nitrogen and 548 gr of phosphorus. Equivalent of 275 tonnes of urea and  275 tonnes of  NPK 15 :15 :15 fertiliser per project per year for  € 217.000 per year. Local production of fertilisers due to recycling of  urine and faeces is enough to cover the production of all of the food needed by the inhabitants, at the same time guaranteeing a varied diet. This does not imply any extra work load on women.


Health facilities and related savings.


21) (200) Local nurses housed and  staffed (and eventually paid) at local development level.

22 ( 45) Doctors’ facilities built at intermediate development level, to be staffed according to availability of medical staff. 

<23) Plans for a local basic hospital at project level drawn up. Construction maintenance and some services under the local money system. >23) Plans for a local district hospital drawn up . Construction some services and maintenance under the local exchange system set up.

24) Reduction of medical treatment costs for water-borne diseases, 50% of the population (25.000 part of 50.000) at least once a year x average cost for medicines and doctor’s fees average Euro  20 = 25000  x Euro 20 = Euro  500.000

25) Productivity increase due to reduction in illness caused by water-borne diseases :  50% of the adult population (50% de 30.000)  x  ten days per year x revenue Eur 3 a day = 15000 x 10 x 3 = Euro 450.000.

26) Reduction of 50% in the cases of  malaria, (being 40% of the population at least once a year) through drainage of surface waters, use of mosquito nets, hygiene education courses etc.  Reduction of 50% of costs for of 40% of the population at least once a year, being 50% of the costs of  20.000 persons average anti-malaria treatment (Euro 10 per case) or Euro 200.000, of which 50%  = Euro 100.000.

27)  Increase of  productivity due to reduction in the number of cases of malaria : 10% of the adult population (being 10% of 30.000 or  3.000 adults)  x 10 days x revenue Euro 3 per day = 3000 x 10 x 3 = Euro 90.000.

28) Reduction  in the cost of urgent transportation of sick family members : to hospital in a large town  (a car is rented for 38 a time,  paid by a collection amongst all family members) ; 10% of the population of 50.000 at least 1 time a year, being Euro 38 x 5.000 = Euro 190.000.

29) 45 bicycle ambulances built and manned, one for each intermediate development level.

30) 3 simple ambulance structures operating on locally produced fuels, for urgent cases at project level.


Education facilities.


31) (200) Primary schools built at local development level and staffed.

32) (45) Secondary schools built at intermediate development level and staffed.

33) One trades school established and operative at project level and staffed.

34) One preparatory year course for  university students at project level set up and staffed

35) (200) primary schools, (45) intermediate schools, (1) trades school and (1) university course facility equipped with PV solar power  for lighting.

36) (200) local study rooms built at local development level.

37) (200) study rooms equipped with solar PV power for lighting.

38) (200) on-going evening classes for adults (especially women) staffed and in operation.


Improved cooking facilities and related savings.


39) 10.000 locally manufactured improved cooking stoves distributed and in use with a corresponding reduction in smoke-related health hazards.

40) Elimination of the need to fetch firewood 60% of families (being 60% of 10.000 families or 6.000 families)  x  4 hours per week (or 40% of a 10-hour  working day) x revenue Euro 3 or Euro 1,20 per week. Euro 1,20 a week x 6.000 women = Euro 7200 per week, or Euro 374.400 a year. 

41) Reduction  in the costs of purchase of wood for cooking (or alternatives) :  40% of families (or 40% of  10.000 or 4.000 families). In town (or larger centre) a 5 person family typically uses about   +/- € 0,75 worth of wood or equivalent per day. Reduction  of 65% through the use of improved stoves Euro 0,50 per

42). «Automatic » reforestation 6.5 kg (part of  traditional use of 10 kg per family per day for savings in wood x 10.000 families x 365 = 23725 tons per year @  average value of standing timber for pulp Euro 7.5 per ton = Euro 178.000 per year.


Agriculture and food sovereignty and related savings.


43) (200) plant nurseries set up and in operation at local development level.

44) (45) plant nurseries set up and in operation at intermediate development level.

45) Reduction in the costs of treating people suffering from hunger, or due to inadequate hygiene, or caused by smoke in and around homes : 25% of the population at least once a year x average costs for medicines and doctor’s fees Euro  20 = 25000 x  Euro 20 = Euro  250.000.

46) Reduction of 80% in the costs of  importation of food into the project area. Average cost of food is about Euro 2,20 per family per day, of which 80% is Euro 1,75. Euro 1,75  x 10.000 families x 365 =  Euro 6.387.500 a year.

47) (200) Food storage facilities built and staffed at local development level.

48) (45) Food storage facilities built and staffed at intermediate development level.

49) Benefits from the plantation of 600.000 fruit and nut trees, 400.000 bamboo plants (bamboo shoots), and 1.440.000 Moringa  (horseradish) trees whose leaves can be consumed as spinach.

50). 45 seed banks set up and operating at intermediate level.

51). 1 seed bank operating at project level.


Food milling and related savings.


52. (200) energy-neutral hand milling installations set up and in operation at local development level.

53. Through the introduction of mills, time savings 2 hours per day. Time saved : 1,5 hours per woman per day being 15% of the revenue of  € 3 per 10-hour working day, or  € 0,45.  € 0,45 per day x 10.000  women x 365 days = € 1.642.500.


Production of mini-briquettes for cooking.


54. (400) contracts for the supply of bio-mass for the production of mini-briquettes signed and in operation.

55.  One Demonstration project for the recovery of forest lands and natural parks and reserves using traditional species set up and in operation. 1.200.000 trees (400 trees per hectare over 3.000 hectares) planted and maintained until they are self-sustaining.

55. (200) initiatives at local development level for  the distributed planting of fruit and nut trees and similar carried out. Average 15 hectares per area with 200 trees per hectare (3000 trees) for each area, being 600.000 trees in all.

56. (200) initiatives at local development level for small-scale agro-forestry activities such as distributed bamboo plantations on grasslands and croplands carried out. Average 7 hectares per area with 2000 plants per hectare, being (1400) hectares and 400.000 plants.

57. (200)  small-scale agro-forestry activities – distributed demonstration plantations for practical purposes for local use, including but not limited to Moringa plantations on marginal lands. Average 12 hectares with 600 (horseradish) trees per hectare, or 7200 trees in each area, being (2400 hectares and 1,440.000 trees planted and maintained.

58. (200)  demonstration forestation and/or reforestation projects using Jatropha or equivalent on lands having low inherent potential to support living biomass. Average 7,5 hectares with 1750 trees per hectare, being 1500 hectares planted with 350.000 trees.


PV lighting for study purposes; lighting and photovoltaic refrigeration in clinics and related savings.


60.  (200) PV lighting systems at 200 Wp installed in each of 200 primary schools at local development level..

61. (200) PV lighting systems at 200 Wp. Installed in each of 200 study rooms at local development level.

62.  (45)  PV lighting systems at 200 Wp installed in each of 45 secondary schools at intermediate development level.

63.  (45)  PV lighting systems at 400 Wp installed, one in each medical centre at intermediate development level.

64.  (45)  PV Vaccine and medicine cooling systems at 400 Wp installed, one in each medical centre at intermediate development level.




65.  600.000 liters per year of Jatropha oil produced from the sixth year after planting of the seeds . Savings Euro 550.000 per year.


Transport and communications.


66.  (500) km of tree-lined paved and drained bicycle/footpaths laid and in use.

67.  (200) local radio-telephone units or equivalent created and in operation at tank commission level.

68.  1 local radio station established, staffed, and in operation.


Production facilities.


69. 4 cooperative units for the production of items made from gypsum composites established and in operation.

70. (45) cooperative units for the production of mini-briquettes for high efficiency stoves established and in operation at the intermediary development level.

71. One cooperative for the installation and on-going maintenance of water system structures set up and operative.




This integrated development project fully complies with all of the requirements of the Earth Charter. They surpass all of the requirements of the Millennium Development Goals in the project area except those related to vaccination and curative medicine and some parts of goal 8 which have nothing to do with local development.




Each project in non-pastoralist areas costs about € 5.000.000, of which 25% is provided by the inhabitants themselves by way of work carried out under local money systems set up in an early phase of project execution. This leaves a formal money (Euros) initial financial requirement of about  € 3.750.000 per project.


Projects in pastoralist areas cost about € 7.000.000 each of which 20% is provided by the inhabitants themselves. This leaves a formal money (Euros) initial financial requirement for pastoralist areas of about € 5.600.000 per project. The difference between pastoralist and non-pastoralist areas is determined by the additional drinking water and food supply requirements of herds in pastoralist areas.


For budget purposes, the participation of the local people (expressed in hours of work under the local money system) is converted into Euros at an agreed rate for each eight-hour working day. This rate is usually Euro 3. Where initial seed capital (respectively € 3.750.000 or  € 5.600.000 per project) is not available by way of grant, project applications can be self-financing, subject to an interest-free seed loan repayable in 10 years.




Initial capital investments are covered and repaid where necessary by the populations.


Local cooperative micro-credit fund.


The fail-safe way of financing integrated development projects is through the local cooperative development fund set up in the project area. The local population makes a monthly payment of (at least Euro 3) per family into this fund. The very poor, sick and handicapped can be subsidised under a three-tiered social security system set up for that purpose. The money in the fund is systematically recycled interest-free to the local users for micro-credits for productive investments amounting in all to at least € 16.000.000 (or more than € 1.500 per family) over the first ten year period.


The fund is organised so that the amount in the fund is sufficient to repay the initial interest-free capital investment in a single lump sum after the first ten year operational cycle. In case of repayment, the amount in the fund drops temporarily back to zero. The families continue to make their monthly contributions, so the amount in the Fund gradually builds up again during the second ten years period as it did in the first, and is again recycled interest-free for micro-credits for  productivity development until it is needed to pay for capital extensions and replacements after twenty years. At that  point, the Fund dips back to zero again and slowly builds up again during the third ten-year period and so on in an inherently permanently sustainable way.


For full information on the Local Cooperative Development Fund see part  the interest-free micro-credit systems-introduction and part  the interest-free micro-credit systems  - more details. A detailed costs and benefits analysis is available.


Kyoto protocol.


An innovative menu of 13 applications for CDM finance under the Kyoto Protocol would also have provided full finance for integrated development projects within a period of six or eight years. Unfortunately, the bottom has fallen out of the CDM carbon credits market. Prices for carbon credits are now so low that compliance costs are higher than the benefits to be gained, notwithstanding the simplification procedures introduced to pay lip service to the introduction of CDM projects in poor countries. 


Kyoto Protocol : Analysis of  possibilities for finance.


In theory net CDM income per project would have been to the order of € 24.000.000, enabling standard projects ( initial capital € 3.750.000) to be repaid by the end of the sixth year of operation on the basis of CDM income for the first five years, and projects in pastoralist areas (initial capital    5.600.000) to be repaid by the end of the eighth year of operation on the basis of CDM income for the first seven years. 


Green Climate Fund for climate adaptation.


Integrated development projects automatically incorporate nearly all action recommended for adaptation to climate change in poor countries and communities. For this purpose, a Green Climate Fund for Climate Adaptation is in the course of being set up as an operating entity of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Subscriptions by donor nations to the fund amounted to the princely sum of about US$ 9 million on 17 September, 2013. As the country hosting this project qualifies for assistance for adaptation to climate change under the Green Climate Fund, the national government could include the project in its climate adaptation plan.   


For information on how integrated development projects deal with climate change issues see : climate adaptation applications built into integrated development projects.




Full technical information on project budgets is available at the section  project costs</a: which contains the following 17 files :


01. General introduction.

02. General sketch of the financial structures.

03. Short budget analysis.

04. Budget organisation.

05. Description of the local contributions.

06. Method for calculating local contributions.

07. Relationship between local money and formal money.

08. The budget.

09. The budget in a form requested by donors/financing parties.

10. Annual expenses (budgets per year).

11. Quarterly budgets.

12. Excel spreadsheets for the preparation of the budget.

13. The sustainability of the system.

14. Tenders.

15. The bank structures with limitations imposed on the project coordinator.

16. Auditing structures.

17. Protection of donors and financing parties.


Funds for some “productive structures” are individually listed on the balance sheet to cover the formal money costs of their formation. These interest-free formal money loans are paid back into the project’s Cooperative Local Development Fund over a period, usually 4-5 years, considered realistic by the participants themselves. Individual loan repayments are financed by the sale of a part of the production for formal money OUTSIDE THE PROJECT AREA until loan repayment is completed.




General notes :


01. The concept of the creation of enabling social, financial, productive and service structures as a foundation for integrated development in project areas is profoundly innovative. The development revolution lies in the organisation of the proposed project structures. Once the structures are in place, the local populations will have the instruments available to be able to take their preferred development initiatives.


02. The critical order of sequence for the creation of project structures is vital, starting with social structures, using the social structures to set up the financial structures, then using the financial structures to set up production units for locally produced items needed for the service structures, then finally the service structures themselves.


03. A powerful general productive mobilisation of the local population is made possible through the use of the structures created by the project.


04. The local people themselves plan, execute, run, manage and, where necessary, pay for all structures. They are assisted during the initial project execution period by a (very) small team of experts led by a local project coordinator.


Agriculture and food security :


01. The production of fertilisers through the recycling of urine and faeces at household and/or local level is sufficient to grow all basic foods needed.


02. The recycling of household kitchen and garden waste at tank commission level provides food for chickens, goats, and where socially appropriate, pigs, thereby providing variety in diets.


03. The institution of plant nurseries under the local money system optimises local cultivation and the use of (local) seeds.


04. Plantations with fruit and nut trees, bamboo, and Moringa (horseradish) and Jatropha trees provide both food security and raw materials for numerous local productive applications. Had the bottom not fallen out of the market, carbon emission reduction certificates (CERs) under the Kyoto Protocol’s CDM mechanism could have been used to repay initial capital advanced for the project.


Ecology, conservation and energy :


01. A menu of forestation and reforestation applications covering different types of land use is used to store CO2, improve water management and the ecological infrastructure of the project area.


02. A unique combination of methods and technologies promotes the formation of a coordinated energy-neutral ecologically sustainable local economy system.


03. The proposed combination of methods and technologies is in line with the principles of Mother Earth recently introduced by legislation in Bolivia and with the Earth Charter.


04. Extended use is made of sustainable energy technologies, such as widespread application of photovoltaic energy installations.


05. The project is CO2 neutral. All energy involved is sustainably produced and consumed in the project area itself.


06. Wide use is made of gypsum composites. Gypsum is 100% inert. While gypsum-based products which are no longer needed will be returned to the production units for 100% recycling into new products, they do not cause any harm to persons or to the environment in any way even where they are abandoned in nature. The gypsum needed for the project can be mined (locally) on a very small scale for local consumption only.


Education :


01 It is possible to build any required number of schools and accommodation for teachers using local labour and materials under the local money system. This means the schools are cooperatively built and owned by the local populations, while at the same time, local builders and suppliers are always fully paid for the work they do.


02. Teachers can be paid, or their state-paid salaries supplemented, by the local populations under the local money system.


Finance :


01. An innovative local money system is blended with a cooperative interest-free, cost-free, micro-credit system operating under the local money system. This may be the single most innovative aspect of the project proposal.


02. The local exchange system is used to mobilise the local populations. All adult members of the population are automatically members of the system, but users may always choose whether to use the local money system or the formal money system for their transactions. The local money system supplements and therefore does not replace the formal money one.


03. The innovative interest-free and cost-free micro-credit system proposed is run by the people themselves and the funds used are theirs. Fierce social control should ensure repayment of all loans. Conservatively based on an average pay-back time of two years, the system generates at least € 1.500 of interest-free credits for productivity development for each family in each period of ten years.


Health :


01. Health proposals covered by the project are based on preventive social health action and not on curative medicine.


02. Subject to the availability of doctors over time, up to [45] local medical centres including appropriate accommodation for doctors can be built under the local money systems using local labour and materials. This means the centres are cooperatively built and owned by the local populations, while at the same time, builders and suppliers are always fully paid for their work.


03. Doctors can be paid, or their state-paid salaries supplemented, by the local populations under the local money system.


04. Up to [200] nursing points including accommodation for nurses will be built under the local money systems using local labour and materials. This means the nursing points are cooperatively built and owned by the local populations, while at the same time, builders and suppliers are always fully paid for their work.


05. Nurses can be paid, or their state-paid salaries supplemented, by the local populations under the local money system.


06. Medicines are cooperatively purchased in bulk by the project according to medical prescriptions. For the purpose a cooperative health insurance fund is set up. Local nurses ensure the medicines are administered according to prescription.


07. A basic level local hospital with up to [200] beds (at least 0,5 beds for each tank commission area) should be built in [place]. Many of the building costs and the costs of on-going non-professional services will be covered under the local money system. Purchase of medical equipment and imported medical supplies for the hospital is in principle not included in the project as they tend to cause financial leakage from the project area. Funds for equipment and supplies must be separately sourced under a conventional aid agreement.


Water and sanitation :


01. For drinking water supply, a hub and spoke concept is used whereby, assuming borehole capacities permit, several high pressure solar pumps can be installed in series in one large diameter borehole feeding 5-8 distributed drinking water points, forcing water where necessary over a distance of several kilometres. This means that just [45] high capacity boreholes need to be drilled instead of [200] boreholes as would be the case in conventional projects, leading to important cost reductions for the drinking water supply system.


02. Use is made of gypsum composite technologies for the local manufacture of water tanks, toilet systems, high efficiency stoves, support structures for buildings, school furniture etc. These can in principle be 100% manufactured, installed and maintained under the local money system set up without the need for any formal money capital at all.


03. Ecological locally built dry composting toilet systems with separation of faeces and urine are used. Urine and faeces are safely recycled at tank commission level for productive purposes.


Women’s rights:


01. An elective system ensuring a leading role for women in all structures at all levels is applied.


02. Women are the major beneficiaries of the wide menu of time-saving and capacity building-structures set up during project execution.


03. The autonomy of women in the project area is improved through the interest-free, cost-free micro-credit loans for productivity purposes made available to them.


04. Women’s rights as defined in human rights treaties are fully respected.




The project documentation has been drafted under an innovative Model for self-financing, ecological, sustainable local integrated development projects. It is  based on a population of about 75.000 people with all structures organised in three anthropologically justified levels.


About 20 individual projects are therefore needed for each 1.000.000 inhabitants


By way of example, a sub-regional plan for the integrated development of West Africa under the auspices of the Organisation of West African States (ECOWAS, French UEMOA) excluding Nigeria and Ghana would involve about 2.500 projects. Execution of integrated development plans for Nigeria and Ghana together would involve another 2.500 projects.


Depending on accessibility and population densities, detailed district plans, regional plans and national plans can be prepared for just a few Euro cents per inhabitant. Students and NGO members drafting project documentations automatically qualify to act as project coordinators for the individual projects they have drafted. For some examples see draft regional and national plans.


Each integrated development project sets up an autonomous, interest-free, inflation-free, cooperative local economy system. Subject to availability of finance, there is no limit to the number of projects which can be executed contemporaneously.  A perspective for the rapid achievement of the Millennium Goals and their successor(s) is thereby created



A full-year e-learning course at post-masters level for the Diploma in Integrated Development ( Dip. Int. Dev.) is available on-line for use free of charge by all.

Just reading the course material provides full information on the concepts and methods the Model (and therefore the project) is based on. Material available there includes detailed reference lists and key-words lists linked to the sections of the course where the subjects are handled. 



Forward: list of drawings and graphs.

Back: General information.

Complete index of the Model.


Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them."

Gesell, Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial Share-Alike 3.0 Licence.